Alternative Fuels for Trucks

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Alternative fuels for trucks encompass a variety of energy sources that replace or supplement traditional diesel fuel. These fuels are designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, offering a path towards a more sustainable trucking industry.

Impact on climate action

“Alternative Fuels for Trucks” significantly advance climate action by reducing emissions from freight transport, a major contributor to greenhouse gases. Utilizing low-carbon fuels like biodiesel or hydrogen, these trucks offer tangible emission reductions, fostering a sustainable shift in the transportation sector towards a greener future.


  • Biodiesel: Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from plant-based oils or animal fats. It can be blended with traditional diesel fuel or used as a standalone fuel. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner fuel alternative, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter.
  • Renewable Diesel (RD): RD is a synthetic diesel fuel produced from renewable feedstocks, such as vegetable oils or waste fats. It is often referred to as “drop-in” fuel, as it can be used in existing diesel engines without modification. RD offers a cleaner alternative to traditional diesel fuel, with lower emissions and a reduced carbon footprint.
  • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): CNG is a natural gas that is compressed for storage and transportation. It is used as a fuel for trucks, buses, and other heavy-duty vehicles. CNG engines are more efficient than diesel engines, offering lower emissions and reduced fuel costs.
  • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG): LNG is natural gas that is liquefied for storage and transportation. It is used as a fuel for long-haul trucks and heavy-duty vehicles, offering a longer range than CNG and reduced emissions compared to traditional diesel.
  • Hydrogen: Hydrogen is a clean and abundant energy carrier that can be used as a fuel for trucks through hydrogen fuel cells. Hydrogen fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into electricity, powering the truck’s electric motors.
  • Synthetic Fuels: Synthetic fuels are produced from non-biological sources, such as coal, biomass, or captured carbon dioxide. They are designed to be compatible with existing internal combustion engines and can be used as a drop-in replacement for traditional diesel fuel.

TRL : 5-8 (Widely varying across different fuels)

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Advanced Biodiesel Production: Research is ongoing to develop more efficient and sustainable processes for producing biodiesel, using a wider range of feedstocks and minimizing the impact on food production.
  • Renewable Diesel from Waste: Companies are developing technologies to produce renewable diesel from waste materials, such as used cooking oil and animal fats, creating a circular economy approach to fuel production.
  • Advanced CNG and LNG Technologies: Innovations are focused on improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of CNG and LNG infrastructure, including the development of more efficient storage tanks and refueling stations.
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology: Significant research is focused on improving the efficiency, durability, and affordability of hydrogen fuel cells for heavy-duty trucks.
  • Synthetic Fuel Production: Companies are developing innovative technologies to produce synthetic fuels from non-biological sources, such as captured carbon dioxide, enabling a potentially carbon-negative transportation system.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Next-Generation Biodiesel Processes
  • Waste-to-Renewable Diesel Technologies
  • Advancements in CNG Storage
  • LNG Infrastructure Efficiency
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Advancements
  • Synthetic Fuel Synthesis Methods
  • Sustainable Feedstock Sourcing
  • Circular Economy in Fuel Production
  • High-Efficiency CNG Engines
  • LNG Refueling Innovations
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Durability
  • Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cells
  • Carbon-Negative Synthetic Fuels
  • Biodiesel Feedstock Diversification
  • Renewable Diesel from Biomass
  • Enhanced CNG Compression Techniques
  • LNG Storage Optimization
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance
  • Synthetic Fuel Production Technologies
  • Eco-Friendly Fuel Infrastructure

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Infinium:
    • Technology Focus: Infinium likely specializes in the development and production of alternative fuels for trucks, possibly including biofuels, synthetic fuels, or hydrogen-based solutions. Their technology enhancements may involve advanced refining processes or novel feedstock sources.
    • Uniqueness: Infinium could stand out for its innovative approach to producing alternative fuels, perhaps leveraging cutting-edge catalytic processes, biotechnology, or renewable energy sources to create low-carbon, high-performance fuels.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments likely include trucking companies, fleet operators, and logistics firms looking to reduce their carbon footprint and comply with emissions regulations while maintaining operational efficiency.
  • Renewable Energy Group (REG):
    • Technology Focus: REG specializes in the production and distribution of biodiesel and renewable diesel, offering alternatives to conventional diesel fuel derived from fossil fuels. Their technology enhancements may focus on optimizing feedstock utilization, refining processes, and product quality.
    • Uniqueness: REG is unique for its extensive experience in the renewable fuels industry, with a focus on producing high-quality, low-emission fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including waste oils and fats. They may also offer integrated solutions for fuel distribution and blending.
    • End-User Segments: REG serves a wide range of end-user segments, including transportation companies, municipalities, government agencies, and agricultural businesses seeking sustainable fuel solutions for their fleets and operations.
  • Clean Energy Fuels:
    • Technology Focus: Clean Energy Fuels is likely focused on providing natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) as alternative fuels for trucks. Their technology enhancements may involve expanding their RNG production capacity, improving fueling infrastructure, and increasing fleet adoption.
    • Uniqueness: Clean Energy Fuels stands out for its commitment to RNG, which is produced from organic waste sources like landfills, wastewater treatment plants, and agricultural residues. This renewable fuel offers significant greenhouse gas emissions reductions compared to traditional fossil fuels.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include trucking companies, transit agencies, waste management companies, and municipalities looking to transition to cleaner and more sustainable fuel options for their fleets.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  1. University of California, Berkeley:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at UC Berkeley are focusing on developing advanced alternative fuels for trucks, such as hydrogen and biofuels, to reduce carbon emissions from the transportation sector. They are exploring innovative production methods and fuel formulations to improve the efficiency and performance of these alternative fuels.
    • Uniqueness of Research: UC Berkeley’s approach involves a holistic assessment of the environmental and economic impacts of alternative fuels for trucks. They are analyzing the entire lifecycle of these fuels, from production to end use, to identify opportunities for emissions reduction and cost savings.
    • End-use Applications: The research at UC Berkeley has implications for the transportation industry, particularly long-haul trucking and freight logistics. By transitioning to low carbon alternative fuels, trucking companies can reduce their carbon footprint and comply with increasingly stringent emissions regulations while ensuring reliable and cost-effective transportation services.
  2. University of Michigan:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at the University of Michigan are exploring novel technologies for producing and utilizing alternative fuels in trucks, including synthetic fuels and electrification solutions. They are investigating the technical feasibility and scalability of these technologies to meet the energy demands of the trucking industry.
    • Uniqueness of Research: The University of Michigan’s research encompasses a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise in mechanical engineering, chemistry, and energy systems. They are developing integrated solutions that address not only the technical challenges but also the economic and policy barriers to widespread adoption of alternative fuels in trucks.
    • End-use Applications: The research at the University of Michigan has applications across various sectors, including freight transportation, agriculture, and logistics. By leveraging alternative fuels, trucking companies can reduce their dependence on fossil fuels, improve energy security, and mitigate climate change impacts while maintaining the efficiency and reliability of their operations.
  3. Stanford University:
    • Technology Enhancements: Stanford University researchers are focusing on advancing the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, for producing alternative fuels for trucks. They are developing innovative technologies for converting renewable electricity into synthetic fuels, such as hydrogen and ammonia, which can be used as clean energy carriers for trucks.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Stanford’s approach integrates fundamental research in materials science, catalysis, and electrochemistry with applied research in energy systems and transportation. They are investigating new catalyst materials and reactor designs to improve the efficiency and selectivity of renewable fuel production processes.
    • End-use Applications: The research at Stanford University has implications for the trucking industry, particularly in urban and regional freight transportation. By utilizing renewable energy sources and alternative fuels, trucking companies can reduce air pollution, noise pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with diesel-powered trucks, contributing to a more sustainable and resilient transportation system.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Alternative fuels are already being commercially implemented in the trucking industry. Biodiesel and renewable diesel are being blended with traditional diesel fuel in various regions. CNG and LNG refueling stations are being deployed, especially in regions with abundant natural gas resources. Hydrogen fuel cell trucks are being tested and piloted in select markets. The widespread adoption of alternative fuels will depend on factors such as cost, infrastructure development, and government support.