Biochar and Soil Carbon Sequestration

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Biochar is a stable, charcoal-like material produced from the heating of biomass in a low-oxygen environment, a process called pyrolysis. When added to soil, biochar acts like a sponge, holding onto water and nutrients while providing a habitat for beneficial microorganisms. It also offers a remarkable ability: sequestering carbon for centuries, effectively locking it away from the atmosphere and mitigating climate change.

Impact on climate action

Biochar and Soil Carbon Sequestration revolutionizes climate action by enhancing carbon sink management. By utilizing biochar, a stable form of carbon, in soil, it sequesters atmospheric carbon, mitigating climate change effects. This innovation fosters sustainable agriculture, reduces greenhouse gas emissions, and promotes soil health, advancing global climate resilience.


  • Pyrolysis Technology: The process of creating biochar involves heating biomass, such as agricultural residues, forestry waste, or sewage sludge, in a specialized reactor called a pyrolyzer, under limited oxygen. This process breaks down the biomass, producing biochar, bio-oil, and syngas, each with various potential applications.
  • Soil Carbon Sequestration: Biochar’s stable structure makes it resistant to decomposition, allowing it to remain in the soil for hundreds or even thousands of years. The carbon captured within the biochar is effectively sequestered, removing it from the atmosphere and contributing to long-term carbon storage.
  • Enhanced Soil Health: Biochar acts as a soil amendment, improving:
    • Water Retention: Its porous structure holds onto water, reducing water stress on plants and improving drought resilience.
    • Nutrient Cycling: Biochar can bind nutrients, preventing their loss through leaching and making them more available to plants.
    • Microbial Activity: Biochar provides a habitat for beneficial microorganisms, promoting a healthy soil ecosystem.

TRL : 6-8

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Engineered Biochar: Researchers are developing engineered biochar with specific properties tailored for different applications, such as enhancing nutrient retention, improving water filtration, or remediating contaminated soils.
  • Biochar-Based Fertilizers: Combining biochar with nutrients creates biochar-based fertilizers, offering a slow-release and efficient method for delivering nutrients to plants while sequestering carbon.
  • Biochar in Livestock Feed: Studies suggest that adding biochar to livestock feed can reduce methane emissions from animals and improve animal health.
  • Biochar in Construction Materials: Incorporating biochar into concrete, asphalt, and other building materials can enhance their durability and sequester carbon in long-lasting infrastructure.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Pyrolysis Biomass Conversion
  • Carbon Sequestration Mechanisms
  • Biochar Soil Amendment Techniques
  • Biochar Enhanced Water Retention
  • Nutrient Cycling Optimization
  • Microbial Habitat Creation
  • Commercial Biochar Production
  • Tailored Biochar Properties
  • Biochar-Based Fertilizer Development
  • Slow-Release Nutrient Delivery Systems
  • Methane Reduction in Livestock
  • Biochar in Construction Applications
  • Durability Enhancement in Building Materials
  • Carbon Sequestration in Infrastructure
  • Biochar Soil Remediation Methods
  • Contaminated Soil Rehabilitation Techniques
  • Biochar-Based Water Filtration
  • Carbon Negative Agriculture Practices
  • Long-Term Soil Carbon Storage Solutions

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Carbo Culture:
    • Technology Focus: Carbo Culture specializes in the production and application of biochar, a form of charcoal produced from biomass. Their focus is on utilizing biochar as a soil amendment to enhance soil health, fertility, and carbon sequestration capabilities.
    • Uniqueness: Carbo Culture stands out for its innovative biochar production methods, which might involve advanced pyrolysis techniques or novel feedstock sources. They may also offer unique formulations or application methods tailored for specific soil types and agricultural practices.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments could include agriculture, forestry, horticulture, and landscaping industries seeking sustainable solutions to improve soil quality, crop yield, and carbon sequestration.
  • Pacific Biochar:
    • Technology Focus: Pacific Biochar is likely focused on biochar production, research, and consulting services. They may offer a range of biochar products optimized for different soil types and agricultural applications, along with expertise in soil science and carbon sequestration.
    • Uniqueness: Pacific Biochar may differentiate itself through its extensive research and development efforts, exploring innovative uses of biochar and its potential benefits for soil health, carbon sequestration, and climate resilience. They may also provide customized solutions based on comprehensive soil analysis.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments may include organic farms, vineyards, orchards, nurseries, and sustainable agriculture initiatives seeking natural soil amendments to improve fertility, water retention, and carbon sequestration.
  • Carbon Gold:
    • Technology Focus: Carbon Gold specializes in biochar-based soil amendments and microbial products designed to enhance plant growth, soil health, and carbon sequestration. They might combine biochar with beneficial microbes or organic fertilizers for maximum effectiveness.
    • Uniqueness: Carbon Gold could be unique for its focus on biochar-based microbial products, leveraging the synergistic effects of biochar and beneficial microorganisms to improve soil biology and plant resilience. Their products may also be tailored for specific plant species and growing conditions.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments might include organic growers, urban gardens, landscapers, and restoration projects looking to enhance soil fertility, biodiversity, and carbon capture through natural and sustainable methods.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Cornell University’s Department of Soil and Crop Sciences:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at Cornell University are advancing the use of biochar as a soil amendment to enhance carbon sequestration. They are investigating various production methods and feedstock sources to optimize biochar properties for improved soil health and carbon storage.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Cornell’s research emphasizes the integration of biochar into sustainable agricultural practices. They are studying the long-term effects of biochar application on soil fertility, crop productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions, considering factors such as soil type, climate, and land management practices.
    • End-use Applications: The research at Cornell University has practical applications in agriculture, forestry, and land restoration projects. Farmers can incorporate biochar into their soil management practices to improve soil structure, nutrient retention, and water holding capacity, while also sequestering carbon and mitigating climate change.
  • University of California, Berkeley’s Biochar Research Group:
    • Technology Enhancements: The Biochar Research Group at UC Berkeley is pioneering innovative techniques for biochar production and application. They are exploring novel feedstock sources, such as agricultural residues and urban organic waste, and developing scalable and cost-effective biochar production technologies.
    • Uniqueness of Research: UC Berkeley’s research extends beyond traditional biochar applications in agriculture to explore new avenues for carbon sequestration and climate mitigation. They are investigating the potential of biochar as a soil amendment in urban environments, green infrastructure projects, and carbon-negative building materials.
    • End-use Applications: The research conducted by UC Berkeley’s Biochar Research Group has broad applications in urban planning, waste management, and sustainable construction. By incorporating biochar into urban soils, green roofs, and construction materials, cities can enhance their resilience to climate change while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air and water quality.
  • Wageningen University & Research:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at Wageningen University & Research are at the forefront of exploring the potential of biochar and soil carbon sequestration as climate mitigation strategies. They are investigating the interactions between biochar, soil microorganisms, and plant roots to optimize carbon sequestration rates and enhance soil carbon storage.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Wageningen’s research integrates principles of soil science, agronomy, and ecology to develop holistic approaches for managing large carbon sinks. They are studying the effects of biochar on soil biodiversity, ecosystem resilience, and carbon cycling dynamics in different terrestrial ecosystems, from croplands to forests.
    • End-use Applications: The research at Wageningen University & Research has implications for global efforts to combat climate change and promote sustainable land management practices. By enhancing soil carbon sequestration through biochar application, policymakers, farmers, and land managers can contribute to carbon neutrality goals while improving soil quality, food security, and ecosystem services.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

  • Biochar as a Soil Amendment: Biochar is commercially available as a soil amendment for gardens, farms, and landscaping projects, enhancing soil health and promoting carbon sequestration.
  • Biochar-Based Fertilizers: Companies like Carbon Gold are selling biochar-based fertilizers, offering a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional fertilizers.
  • Biochar in Composting: Biochar is being used in composting facilities to improve compost quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.