Biomanufacturing for Low Carbon Chemicals

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Biomanufacturing harnesses the power of biological systems, such as microorganisms, enzymes, and plant cells, to produce valuable chemicals, materials, and fuels. This innovative approach offers a sustainable alternative to traditional chemical manufacturing processes, often relying on fossil fuels and generating significant waste and emissions.

Impact on climate action

Biomanufacturing in low-carbon chemicals & fertilizers reduces emissions by utilizing biological processes over traditional methods. By replacing fossil fuel-intensive processes with sustainable biotechnology, it minimizes carbon footprints. This innovation fosters a more eco-friendly approach in production, aligning with climate action goals for a greener future.


  • Microbial Fermentation: Utilizes microorganisms, like bacteria and yeast, to convert renewable feedstocks, such as sugars, starches, and biomass, into desired chemicals through their metabolic processes.
  • Enzyme Catalysis: Enzymes, nature’s catalysts, can facilitate specific chemical reactions with high efficiency and selectivity, offering a more sustainable alternative to traditional chemical catalysts.
  • Plant Cell Culture: Growing plant cells in controlled environments allows for the production of valuable plant-derived compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, flavors, and fragrances, without the need for large-scale agriculture.
  • Metabolic Engineering: Modifying the metabolic pathways of microorganisms or plant cells through genetic engineering and synthetic biology techniques enables the production of specific chemicals with higher yields and reduced byproducts.
  • Bioreactors: These vessels provide controlled environments for biomanufacturing processes, optimizing conditions like temperature, pH, and nutrient availability for maximum production efficiency.

TRL : Varies depending on the specific product and technology. Some biomanufactured products, such as ethanol and bioplastics, are already produced at commercial scale (TRL 9). Other biomanufacturing processes are still in the research and development phase (TRL 3-5).

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Next-Generation Biocatalysts: Scientists are developing new and improved biocatalysts with enhanced activity, stability, and selectivity for specific chemical reactions. This includes engineering enzymes with novel properties and exploring the use of microbial consortia for more complex bioconversions.
  • Continuous Bioprocessing: Moving from batch to continuous biomanufacturing processes can significantly improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enable more sustainable production.
  • Artificial Photosynthesis: Researchers are developing artificial photosynthesis systems that mimic nature’s process of using sunlight to convert CO2 into organic compounds, offering a promising pathway for sustainable chemical production.
  • Bio-based Platform Chemicals: Identifying and developing platform chemicals derived from renewable resources can serve as building blocks for a wide range of bio-based products, creating a more sustainable chemical industry.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Microbial Fermentation Advancements
  • Enzyme Catalyst Innovation
  • Plant Cell Culture Technologies
  • Metabolic Pathway Engineering
  • Advanced Bioreactor Design
  • Next-Generation Biocatalyst Development
  • Continuous Bioprocessing Systems
  • Artificial Photosynthesis Research
  • Bio-Based Platform Chemical Discovery
  • Renewable Feedstock Utilization
  • Sustainable Chemical Synthesis
  • Carbon Capture and Utilization Strategies
  • Microbial Consortia Engineering
  • Precision Biomanufacturing Techniques
  • Bioinformatics for Bioprocess Optimization
  • Biomimicry in Chemical Production
  • Novel Bioreactor Systems
  • Eco-Friendly Chemical Manufacturing

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Genomatica:
    • Technology Focus: Genomatica specializes in bioengineering microbes to produce chemicals traditionally derived from petroleum. They leverage biomanufacturing techniques to create sustainable alternatives to various industrial chemicals.
    • Uniqueness: Genomatica is unique in its approach to harnessing the power of biology to manufacture chemicals, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and offering environmentally friendly alternatives. Their proprietary bioengineering platform enables the production of high-performance, sustainable chemicals at scale.
    • End-User Segments: Their solutions cater to industries that use chemicals in their manufacturing processes, including textiles, plastics, personal care products, and specialty chemicals.
  • Bolt Threads:
    • Technology Focus: Bolt Threads focuses on biofabrication, using biomanufacturing techniques to produce sustainable materials inspired by nature, such as spider silk. They employ biotechnology to engineer microbes that produce proteins, which are then spun into fibers for various applications.
    • Uniqueness: Bolt Threads stands out for its innovative approach to creating biomimetic materials that mimic the properties of natural fibers, offering sustainable alternatives to conventional textiles. Their biomanufacturing processes enable the production of high-performance materials with minimal environmental impact.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include industries such as fashion, apparel, outdoor gear, and textiles, where there is a growing demand for sustainable materials and a desire to reduce reliance on traditional petroleum-based fibers.
  • Checkerspot:
    • Technology Focus: Checkerspot specializes in bio-based materials derived from microorganisms found in nature. They use biomanufacturing techniques to produce novel biomaterials with unique properties for various applications.
    • Uniqueness: Checkerspot distinguishes itself through its focus on discovering and engineering microorganisms to produce biomaterials with tailored properties, offering new possibilities for product design and innovation. Their platform enables the rapid development of sustainable materials for diverse end uses.
    • End-User Segments: Their solutions target industries seeking sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, including outdoor gear, footwear, cosmetics, and consumer goods.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Technology Enhancements: MIT researchers are developing novel biomanufacturing processes that utilize engineered microorganisms to produce low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers from renewable feedstocks such as biomass or CO2. They are leveraging synthetic biology techniques to design microbial strains capable of efficiently converting raw materials into target products.
    • Uniqueness of Research: MIT’s approach involves the integration of advanced genetic engineering, metabolic engineering, and fermentation technologies to optimize the production of low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers. They are also exploring innovative reactor designs and process intensification strategies to enhance productivity and reduce energy consumption.
    • End-use Applications: The low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers produced through MIT’s research have applications in various industries, including agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and renewable energy. For example, bio-based fertilizers can improve soil health and crop yields while reducing the environmental impact of conventional fertilizer production.
  • University of California, Berkeley:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at UC Berkeley are investigating the use of renewable resources such as lignocellulosic biomass and waste streams to produce low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers through biomanufacturing. They are developing enzymatic and microbial biocatalysts capable of efficiently converting biomass-derived sugars and other substrates into value-added products.
    • Uniqueness of Research: UC Berkeley’s research focuses on developing sustainable bioprocessing technologies that minimize waste generation and energy consumption while maximizing product yields and purity. They are also exploring the use of advanced analytics and automation systems to optimize biomanufacturing processes in real-time.
    • End-use Applications: The low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers produced at UC Berkeley have applications in diverse sectors, including agriculture, food, and biorefining. For instance, bio-based chemicals derived from renewable sources can replace petroleum-based counterparts in various industrial applications, contributing to the transition towards a more sustainable and circular economy.
  • Technical University of Denmark (DTU):
    • Technology Enhancements: DTU researchers are developing innovative biomanufacturing platforms for the production of low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers using engineered microorganisms and enzymatic pathways. They are exploring modular and scalable bioreactor designs that enable flexible operation and optimization of bioprocesses.
    • Uniqueness of Research: DTU’s research emphasizes the integration of systems biology, metabolic modeling, and bioprocess engineering to design and optimize microbial cell factories for the production of target compounds. They are also investigating the use of renewable energy sources and carbon capture technologies to reduce the carbon footprint of biomanufacturing processes.
    • End-use Applications: The low-carbon chemicals and fertilizers developed at DTU have potential applications in agriculture, healthcare, and renewable energy sectors. For example, bio-based fertilizers enriched with nitrogen-fixing bacteria can enhance soil fertility and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers, thereby mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and environmental pollution.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Biomanufacturing is already commercially established for various products, and the market for bio-based chemicals and materials is expanding rapidly. Examples include:

  • Biofuels: Ethanol and biodiesel are widely used as transportation fuels and are produced through biomanufacturing processes using renewable feedstocks, such as corn, sugarcane, and vegetable oils.
  • Bioplastics: Biodegradable plastics, such as PLA (polylactic acid) and PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates), are being produced at commercial scale from renewable resources like corn starch and sugarcane.
  • Pharmaceuticals: Several pharmaceuticals, such as insulin and antibiotics, are produced through biomanufacturing using engineered microorganisms.