Floating Solar Farms

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Floating solar farms utilize water bodies, such as reservoirs and lakes, for solar panel deployment. This technology addresses land scarcity concerns and offers unique advantages in certain regions.

Impact on climate action

Floating Solar Farms in Utility Scale Solar PV revolutionize climate action by maximizing land use efficiency and enhancing energy production. By utilizing water bodies for solar installations, these farms reduce land footprint, mitigate water evaporation, and accelerate the adoption of renewable energy, contributing to carbon emissions reduction and climate resilience.


  • Floating Platforms: Floating solar farms utilize pontoons or other floating structures to support solar panels on water bodies. These structures are typically made from durable and lightweight materials, such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or composite materials. They are designed to withstand environmental conditions, such as wind, waves, and UV radiation.
  • Anchoring and Mooring Systems: Floating platforms are anchored or moored to the bottom of the water body to prevent them from drifting. Different anchoring and mooring systems are used depending on the depth and characteristics of the water body.
  • Cable Management: Cables are used to connect the solar panels to each other and to the inverter system. These cables must be properly managed to ensure their durability and prevent electrical hazards.
  • Photovoltaic Effect: The photovoltaic effect, which is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, occurs in the solar panels on the floating platforms. The electricity generated is then transmitted to the shore through underwater cables.

TRL : 6-7

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Modular Floating Platforms: Startups like SolarDuck are developing modular floating platforms that can be easily assembled and deployed in various water environments. This modularity reduces installation costs and improves scalability.
  • Advanced Anchoring and Mooring Systems: Innovations in anchoring and mooring systems, such as using dynamic positioning systems, are improving the stability and reliability of floating solar farms, especially in deeper water and offshore locations.
  • Durable and Lightweight Materials: Research is ongoing to develop new materials for floating platforms that are even more durable, lightweight, and resistant to environmental degradation.
  • Integrated Energy Storage: Some floating solar farms are being designed with integrated energy storage systems, such as batteries, to address intermittency issues and provide more reliable power.
  • Hybrid Floating Solar-Wind Systems: Combining floating solar farms with offshore wind farms can create hybrid renewable energy systems that offer increased energy generation and improved grid stability.

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • SolarDuck:
    • Technology Enhancement: SolarDuck specializes in floating solar solutions utilizing innovative floating platforms designed to support solar panels on water bodies such as reservoirs, lakes, and ponds. Their technology enables the installation of solar panels on water surfaces, maximizing the utilization of available space and reducing land requirements for solar energy projects.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: SolarDuck stands out for its unique floating platform design, which offers stability, durability, and cost-effectiveness for floating solar installations. Their platforms are designed to withstand various water conditions and environmental factors, making them suitable for a wide range of water bodies and climates.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: SolarDuck serves utility-scale solar developers, municipalities, water utilities, and industrial facilities seeking sustainable and space-efficient solar energy solutions. Their floating solar platforms are ideal for water bodies with limited land availability or environmental constraints, enabling the deployment of solar farms in diverse locations.
  • HelioRec:
    • Technology Enhancement: HelioRec specializes in floating solar systems designed to generate clean energy on water surfaces. Their innovative floating platforms provide a stable foundation for solar panels, allowing for the installation of solar farms on lakes, reservoirs, and other water bodies.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: HelioRec stands out for its focus on developing customizable floating solar solutions tailored to the specific needs and conditions of different water bodies. Their platforms are designed for easy deployment, maintenance, and scalability, offering a flexible and cost-effective option for floating solar installations.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: HelioRec serves utility companies, renewable energy developers, water management authorities, and industrial facilities interested in harnessing solar energy from water bodies. Their floating solar systems provide opportunities for generating clean energy, reducing carbon emissions, and optimizing land use in areas with limited space for traditional solar installations.
  • Saemangeum Floating Solar Energy Project:
    • Technology Enhancement: The Saemangeum Floating Solar Energy Project is one of the largest floating solar installations in the world, located in South Korea’s Saemangeum area. The project utilizes floating platforms to support solar panels on the surface of a seawater reservoir, generating clean energy from the sun.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: The Saemangeum Floating Solar Energy Project stands out for its scale and ambition in deploying floating solar technology on a large scale. The project demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of floating solar installations for generating renewable energy and optimizing land use in coastal areas.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: The Saemangeum Floating Solar Energy Project serves as a model for governments, utilities, and renewable energy developers interested in deploying large-scale floating solar installations. The project showcases the potential of floating solar technology to contribute to renewable energy targets, mitigate land scarcity issues, and promote sustainable development in coastal regions.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • National University of Singapore (NUS):
    • Research Focus: NUS is a pioneer in research on Floating Solar Farms, focusing on novel floating platform designs, environmental impact assessments, and system optimization strategies to maximize the efficiency and sustainability of floating solar installations.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves developing floating photovoltaic (FPV) systems that can withstand challenging marine environments, such as saltwater corrosion, wave action, and typhoon conditions, while maintaining high energy production levels and minimizing ecological disturbances.
    • End-use Applications: Their work has applications in reservoirs, lakes, and coastal waters. For example, they’re researching modular floating platforms with flexible anchoring systems and mooring arrangements that adapt to water level fluctuations and site-specific conditions, developing biodegradable and eco-friendly materials for floating structures and encapsulation materials that minimize environmental impact and reduce lifecycle costs, and investigating the integration of FPV with complementary technologies, such as aquaculture, water desalination, and floating green spaces, to enhance the multifunctionality and ecosystem services of floating solar installations.
  • Delft University of Technology (TU Delft):
    • Research Focus: TU Delft conducts innovative research on Floating Solar Farms, exploring advanced modeling techniques, structural analysis methods, and optimization algorithms to design cost-effective and resilient floating photovoltaic systems for different geographical locations and climatic conditions.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves simulating the dynamic behavior of floating platforms under various loading scenarios, including wind, waves, currents, and ice, to assess structural integrity, stability, and fatigue performance over the operational lifetime of FPV installations.
    • End-use Applications: Their work finds applications in inland water bodies, coastal areas, and offshore environments. For instance, they’re researching numerical modeling tools and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that predict the hydrodynamic response of floating solar arrays and optimize the layout and spacing of solar panels to minimize shading and maximize energy yield, developing innovative anchoring and mooring systems that enhance the stability and reliability of FPV platforms in harsh marine environments, and investigating the techno-economic feasibility of FPV projects in different regulatory frameworks and market contexts.
  • University of Tokyo:
    • Research Focus: University of Tokyo is actively involved in research on Floating Solar Farms, investigating innovative materials, manufacturing processes, and deployment techniques to reduce the cost and environmental footprint of floating photovoltaic systems and accelerate their widespread adoption.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves developing lightweight and durable floating structures, such as floating pontoons, buoyancy modules, and support frames, using advanced composites, polymers, and recycled materials that offer high strength-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance, and UV stability in marine environments.
    • End-use Applications: Their work has applications in reservoirs, irrigation ponds, and wastewater treatment facilities. For example, they’re researching automated assembly methods and robotic fabrication technologies that streamline the construction and installation of FPV platforms and reduce labor costs and construction time, developing floating solar modules with integrated monitoring and control systems that optimize energy production and prevent performance degradation due to fouling, shading, or module mismatch, and investigating the environmental benefits and ecosystem services of FPV installations, such as water conservation, biodiversity enhancement, and carbon sequestration.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Several commercial-scale floating solar farms are already in operation, such as the 1.2 MW Yamakura Dam project in Japan and the 41 MW C floating solar farm in South Korea.