Fluorinated Gas Alternatives for Decarbonization

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Fluorinated gases, particularly sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), are potent greenhouse gases with exceptionally high global warming potentials (GWPs). They are widely used in electrical equipment, such as switchgear and transformers, due to their excellent insulating and arc-quenching properties. Fluorinated gas alternatives are technologies and solutions that replace SF6 with more environmentally friendly options, significantly reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of electrical infrastructure.

Impact on climate action

The introduction of Fluorinated Gas Alternatives holds promise for reducing non-CO2 emissions, crucial for climate action. By substituting potent greenhouse gases with safer alternatives, this innovation mitigates their harmful impact on global warming, contributing significantly to achieving emission reduction targets and fostering a more sustainable environment.


  • Alternative Gases: Several alternative gases with significantly lower GWPs compared to SF6 are being explored and implemented, including:
    • Dry Air: Air, with its natural insulating properties, is a viable alternative for certain applications, particularly in medium-voltage switchgear.
    • Fluoronitriles (C4F7N and C5F10O): These gases offer good dielectric strength and arc-quenching capabilities with significantly lower GWPs compared to SF6.
    • Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs): HFOs have very low GWPs and can be used in blends with other gases to achieve the desired performance characteristics.
  • Vacuum Technology: Vacuum interrupters utilize a vacuum to interrupt electrical arcs, eliminating the need for any insulating gas and offering a completely SF6-free solution.
  • Solid Insulation: Solid insulating materials, such as epoxy resin and composite materials, are being used to replace SF6 in certain applications, providing a more compact and environmentally friendly option.

TRL : 6-9 (depending on the specific technology and application)

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Hybrid Switchgear: Combining vacuum interrupters with alternative gases, such as dry air or fluoronitriles, can optimize performance and reduce reliance on any single gas.
  • Digitalization and Smart Grid Technologies: Integrating digital sensors and monitoring systems can improve the efficiency and reliability of switchgear, enabling the use of alternative gases with lower dielectric strength.
  • Gas Recycling and Recovery: Developing technologies for recycling and recovering SF6 from existing equipment can minimize its release into the atmosphere and contribute to a circular economy approach.
  • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): Conducting LCA studies can compare the environmental impact of different fluorinated gas alternatives, guiding the selection of the most sustainable options.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Dry Air Insulation Advancements
  • Fluoronitrile Dielectric Solutions
  • Hydrofluoroolefin Blend Technologies
  • Solid Insulation Applications
  • Hybrid Switchgear Integration
  • Digitalization in Electrical Equipment
  • Smart Grid Integration
  • Gas Recycling Technologies
  • Circular Economy Approaches
  • Life Cycle Assessment Studies
  • Sustainable Gas Alternatives
  • Performance Optimization Strategies
  • Reliability Enhancement Techniques

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • nuventura:
    • Technology Focus: nuventura specializes in developing alternatives to fluorinated gases (F-gases) used in electrical switchgear and related equipment. Their solutions likely involve innovative insulation technologies or alternative gas mixtures that offer comparable or improved performance while minimizing environmental impact.
    • Uniqueness: nuventura stands out for its dedication to sustainability and environmental responsibility within the electrical industry. Their focus on F-gas alternatives reflects a commitment to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments likely include utilities, energy companies, and industrial facilities that use high-voltage electrical equipment requiring insulation gases. Additionally, regulatory compliance and corporate sustainability goals may drive adoption across various industries.
  • GE Grid Solutions:
    • Technology Focus: GE Grid Solutions is likely investing in research and development efforts to develop fluorinated gas alternatives for use in their grid equipment and solutions. Their approach may involve advanced materials, insulation techniques, or gas purification technologies.
    • Uniqueness: GE Grid Solutions brings extensive expertise in electrical grid infrastructure and a global reach to the pursuit of fluorinated gas alternatives. Their solutions are likely to be integrated into comprehensive grid modernization initiatives, offering customers a holistic approach to sustainability and reliability.
    • End-User Segments: Their solutions would primarily target utilities, grid operators, and industrial customers seeking to reduce their environmental footprint and comply with regulations governing F-gas usage.
  • Hitachi ABB Power Grids:
    • Technology Focus: Hitachi ABB Power Grids is likely developing innovative alternatives to fluorinated gases for use in their power grid products and systems. Their solutions may incorporate advanced insulation materials, gas mixtures, or novel engineering designs to achieve comparable performance with reduced environmental impact.
    • Uniqueness: Hitachi ABB Power Grids brings together the expertise of two major players in the power industry, combining Hitachi’s technology prowess with ABB’s extensive experience in power grids. Their fluorinated gas alternatives are likely to be part of broader efforts to deliver sustainable and resilient energy infrastructure.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments would include utilities, renewable energy developers, industrial customers, and infrastructure providers seeking to upgrade their power grid infrastructure with environmentally friendly alternatives to F-gases.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • ETH Zurich:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at ETH Zurich are exploring novel fluorinated gas alternatives by utilizing advanced chemical synthesis and molecular engineering techniques. They are developing new compounds with similar properties to fluorinated gases but with significantly lower environmental impact.
    • Uniqueness of Research: ETH Zurich’s approach involves a combination of theoretical modeling, experimental synthesis, and performance testing to identify promising alternatives to fluorinated gases. They are focusing on compounds that exhibit high thermal stability, low toxicity, and minimal global warming potential.
    • End-use Applications: The research at ETH Zurich has applications in various industries, including electronics, refrigeration, and air conditioning. By replacing fluorinated gases with more sustainable alternatives, companies can reduce their carbon footprint and comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations.
  • RWTH Aachen University:
    • Technology Enhancements: RWTH Aachen University researchers are developing innovative technologies for the production and utilization of fluorinated gas alternatives. They are exploring alternative manufacturing processes, such as plasma-based synthesis and green chemistry methods, to minimize the environmental impact of fluorinated gas production.
    • Uniqueness of Research: RWTH Aachen’s research integrates principles of sustainability and industrial ecology into the development of fluorinated gas alternatives. They are investigating the entire lifecycle of these alternatives, from raw material extraction to end-of-life disposal, to ensure their overall environmental sustainability.
    • End-use Applications: The research at RWTH Aachen University has implications for industries that rely on fluorinated gases, such as semiconductor manufacturing, foam blowing agents, and heat transfer fluids. By transitioning to more sustainable alternatives, companies can reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to global efforts to mitigate climate change.
  • Technical University of Munich (TUM):
    • Technology Enhancements: TUM researchers are focusing on optimizing the performance and scalability of fluorinated gas alternatives through advanced process engineering and system integration techniques. They are developing innovative reactor designs, catalysts, and separation technologies to enhance the efficiency of alternative gas production processes.
    • Uniqueness of Research: TUM’s approach involves a holistic optimization of fluorinated gas alternative production systems, taking into account technical, economic, and environmental factors. They are leveraging concepts from chemical engineering, materials science, and sustainability science to develop scalable and cost-effective solutions.
    • End-use Applications: The research at TUM has applications in industries such as semiconductor manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and precision cleaning. By adopting fluorinated gas alternatives developed at TUM, companies can reduce their environmental footprint while maintaining the performance and reliability of their processes.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Several fluorinated gas alternatives are seeing commercial implementation across the globe:

  • Dry Air Switchgear: Medium-voltage switchgear using dry air as the insulating medium is widely available and increasingly being adopted in various applications, such as power distribution networks and industrial facilities.
  • Vacuum Interrupters: Vacuum interrupters are a mature technology and are commonly used in high-voltage switchgear, offering a completely SF6-free solution.
  • Fluoronitrile Switchgear: Switchgear using fluoronitriles as the insulating gas is becoming commercially available, particularly for medium-voltage applications, offering a low-GWP alternative to SF6.