Food Waste Bioconversion

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Food waste bioconversion involves using biological processes to convert food waste into valuable products, such as biofuels, bio-based chemicals, animal feed, and fertilizers. This approach addresses the global challenge of food waste by diverting it from landfills and creating a circular economy where waste is transformed into resources.

Impact on climate action

Food Waste Bioconversion within the Low-Carbon Food realm mitigates climate change by converting organic waste into valuable products like biogas or compost. By reducing methane emissions from landfills, this innovation minimizes greenhouse gas emissions, conserves resources, and promotes circularity in the food system, advancing sustainability efforts.


  • Anaerobic Digestion: Anaerobic digestion is a biological process where microorganisms break down organic matter, such as food waste, in the absence of oxygen, producing biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) and digestate. Biogas can be used as a renewable energy source, while digestate can be used as a fertilizer.
  • Composting: Composting is a natural process of decomposition that transforms organic waste into nutrient-rich compost, which can be used to improve soil health and fertility.
  • Insect Farming: Insects, such as black soldier fly larvae, can be used to convert food waste into protein-rich animal feed or fertilizer.
  • Fermentation: Fermentation processes can be used to convert food waste into bio-based chemicals, such as lactic acid and ethanol, which can be used in various industrial applications.

TRL : 6-8 (depending on the specific technology)

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Advanced Anaerobic Digestion Systems: Innovations in anaerobic digestion technology, such as high-solids anaerobic digestion and thermophilic digestion, are improving biogas yields and process efficiency.
  • Biogas Upgrading and Utilization: Technologies are being developed to upgrade biogas to biomethane, which can be used as a substitute for natural gas in transportation and heating applications.
  • Insect Farming Optimization: Research is ongoing to optimize insect farming practices and develop new insect species for food waste bioconversion.
  • Fermentation Process Optimization: Advancements in fermentation technology are improving the efficiency and selectivity of food waste bioconversion into bio-based chemicals.
  • Integrated Biorefinery Concepts: Food waste bioconversion can be integrated into biorefinery concepts, where multiple products are produced from waste biomass, maximizing resource utilization.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Circular Economy Solutions
  • Biological Transformation Processes
  • Anaerobic Digestion Advancements
  • Composting Innovations
  • Insect Farming Optimization
  • Fermentation Breakthroughs
  • Biogas Utilization Technologies
  • Integrated Biorefinery Concepts
  • High-Solids Anaerobic Digestion
  • Thermophilic Digestion Techniques
  • Biogas Upgrading Technologies
  • Innovative Insect Species for Bioconversion
  • Fermentation Process Enhancements

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  1. Bioenergy DevCo:
    • Technology Enhancement: Bioenergy DevCo specializes in advanced anaerobic digestion technology for food waste bioconversion. They utilize anaerobic digestion to break down organic waste, such as food scraps and agricultural residues, into biogas and nutrient-rich digestate. The biogas produced can be used to generate renewable energy, while the digestate can be used as a nutrient-rich fertilizer.
    • Uniqueness: Bioenergy DevCo’s technology offers several unique features, including high efficiency, scalability, and flexibility. Their anaerobic digestion systems can handle a wide range of organic waste streams and produce consistent biogas and digestate outputs. Additionally, they provide comprehensive solutions for food waste management, including waste collection, preprocessing, digestion, and biogas utilization.
    • End-User Segments: Bioenergy DevCo serves a diverse range of end-user segments, including municipalities, food producers, waste management companies, and agricultural operations. Their technology helps these organizations reduce food waste, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and generate renewable energy and valuable byproducts.
  2. Ynsect:
    • Technology Enhancement: Ynsect specializes in insect-based bioconversion technology for food waste and agricultural byproducts. They utilize insects, particularly mealworms and black soldier flies, to convert organic waste into high-quality proteins, oils, and fertilizers. Their process involves feeding organic waste to the insects, which digest and metabolize the nutrients, transforming them into valuable products.
    • Uniqueness: Ynsect’s technology offers a sustainable and eco-friendly solution for food waste management and resource recovery. By harnessing the natural digestive capabilities of insects, they can efficiently convert organic waste into valuable products with minimal environmental impact. Their approach is scalable and can be implemented in various settings, from urban food waste facilities to agricultural operations.
    • End-User Segments: Ynsect targets a wide range of end-user segments, including food manufacturers, restaurants, supermarkets, and agricultural producers. Their technology helps these organizations reduce food waste, recover valuable resources, and promote circular economy principles by closing the nutrient loop.
  3. Full Cycle Bioplastics:
    • Technology Enhancement: Full Cycle Bioplastics specializes in microbial bioconversion technology for food waste bioconversion into biodegradable plastics. They utilize specially engineered microorganisms to ferment organic waste, such as food scraps and agricultural residues, into PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates) bioplastics. These bioplastics are biodegradable and can be used as sustainable alternatives to traditional plastics.
    • Uniqueness: Full Cycle Bioplastics’ technology offers a closed-loop solution for food waste management and plastic pollution. By converting organic waste into biodegradable plastics, they help reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and mitigate the environmental impact of plastic waste. Their PHA bioplastics are fully biodegradable in various environments, including soil, water, and marine ecosystems.
    • End-User Segments: Full Cycle Bioplastics targets a range of end-user segments, including food packaging manufacturers, consumer goods companies, and waste management firms. Their bioplastics provide a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics, helping companies meet their sustainability goals and reduce their environmental footprint.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  1. Wageningen University & Research:
    • Research Focus: Wageningen University & Research is a frontrunner in the field of Food Waste Bioconversion, focusing on developing sustainable and efficient methods to convert food waste into value-added products such as biofuels, biochemicals, and animal feed.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves the optimization of microbial fermentation processes, enzymatic hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion for the efficient breakdown of complex organic matter present in food waste. They also explore novel bioreactor designs, microbial consortia, and process integration strategies to enhance conversion efficiency and product yield.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in biogas production, bio-based chemicals, and circular agriculture, providing opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mitigate food waste, and create renewable energy and nutrient-rich byproducts. By advancing Food Waste Bioconversion technologies, Wageningen’s research contributes to the development of closed-loop food systems and the transition towards a low-carbon circular economy.
  2. University of California, Davis:
    • Research Focus: University of California, Davis conducts pioneering research on Food Waste Bioconversion, leveraging its expertise in microbiology, environmental engineering, and agricultural sustainability to develop innovative approaches for valorizing food waste and reducing its environmental footprint.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses the use of advanced microbial biotechnology, metabolic engineering, and fermentation technologies to convert food waste streams into high-value bioproducts such as biofuels, bioplastics, and single-cell proteins. They also investigate co-digestion strategies, co-products utilization, and life cycle assessments to optimize resource recovery and minimize environmental impacts.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work find applications in renewable energy production, waste diversion, and sustainable agriculture, offering solutions to address pressing environmental challenges associated with food waste disposal and resource depletion. By developing scalable and cost-effective Food Waste Bioconversion technologies, UC Davis’s research supports the transition towards a more circular and resource-efficient food system.
  3. Cornell University:
    • Research Focus: Cornell University is engaged in innovative research on Food Waste Bioconversion, focusing on developing integrated biorefinery systems for converting diverse organic waste streams into valuable products with minimal environmental impact.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves the characterization of food waste composition, degradation kinetics, and microbial communities to tailor bioconversion processes for specific feedstocks and end-products. They also explore techno-economic analysis, process modeling, and policy implications to assess the feasibility, scalability, and sustainability of food waste valorization pathways.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in bioenergy production, sustainable packaging, and soil health improvement, offering opportunities to reduce reliance on fossil fuels, mitigate climate change, and enhance agricultural resilience. By advancing Food Waste Bioconversion technologies, Cornell’s research contributes to the development of circular bioeconomies and the promotion of resource-efficient food production and consumption practices.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Food waste bioconversion technologies are being implemented in commercial-scale projects around the world. For example, Bioenergy DevCo operates several anaerobic digestion facilities in the United States, while Ynsect has built a large-scale insect farm in France.