Fusion Energy

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Fusion energy is generated by fusing light atomic nuclei, such as isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), under extreme temperatures and pressure. This process releases a tremendous amount of energy, far greater than that produced by conventional nuclear fission.

Impact on climate action

Fusion Energy under the theme of Moonshots promises a transformative impact on climate action by offering virtually limitless, clean energy. It aims to reduce carbon emissions drastically, replacing fossil fuels with a sustainable, abundant energy source, thereby mitigating global warming and fostering a sustainable future for generations to come.


  • Plasma Physics: Fusion reactions occur in a state of matter called plasma, where electrons are stripped from atoms, creating an ionized gas. Confining and controlling this superheated plasma is a key technological challenge.
  • Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF): The most prevalent approach, MCF utilizes powerful magnetic fields to confine the plasma within a tokamak or stellarator reactor.
  • Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF): This method uses high-powered lasers or particle beams to compress and heat a small target containing fusion fuel.
  • Deuterium-Tritium Fusion: The most promising fusion reaction for energy production involves fusing deuterium and tritium, which are abundant in seawater and lithium, respectively.

TRL : 4-5

Prominent Innovation themes

  • High-Temperature Superconducting Magnets: These magnets create stronger magnetic fields, enabling more efficient plasma confinement and potentially smaller, more cost-effective reactors. Companies like Commonwealth Fusion Systems (CFS) and Tokamak Energy are developing and implementing this technology.
  • Advanced Plasma Control Systems: Sophisticated control systems using artificial intelligence and real-time data analysis are being developed to improve plasma stability and performance within reactors.
  • Innovative Reactor Designs: Startups like General Fusion are exploring alternative reactor designs, such as magnetized target fusion, which combines aspects of both MCF and ICF to achieve fusion reactions.
  • Quantum Computing for Fusion Simulation: Harnessing the power of quantum computing, startups like Marvel Fusion aim to accelerate the development of fusion energy by providing more accurate and efficient simulations of plasma behavior.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Plasma Physics Advancements
  • Magnetic Confinement Innovations
  • Inertial Confinement Fusion Techniques
  • Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Reactor Development
  • High-Temperature Superconducting Magnets
  • Compact Fusion Reactor Designs
  • Advanced Plasma Control Systems
  • Artificial Intelligence in Fusion Energy
  • Real-Time Data Analysis for Plasma Stability
  • Fusion Power Plant Engineering
  • Neutron Activation Materials Research
  • Tritium Handling and Recycling Technologies
  • Fusion Fuel Supply Chain Innovation
  • Fusion Energy Economics and Cost Analysis
  • International Fusion Collaboration
  • Public Perception of Fusion Energy
  • Fusion Energy Policy and Regulation
  • Fusion-Powered Space Propulsion
  • Fusion Energy Grid Integration

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Commonwealth Fusion Systems (CFS):
    • Technology Focus: CFS is dedicated to developing fusion energy technology, specifically leveraging high-temperature superconductors to build compact and economical fusion reactors.
    • Uniqueness: Their approach centers on advancements in magnet technology and plasma physics to achieve net energy gain, aiming to commercialize fusion energy within the next decade.
    • End-User Segments: Target markets include energy utilities, industrial sectors requiring high energy density, and regions looking to decarbonize their energy supply with clean and sustainable alternatives.
  • Helion Energy:
    • Technology Focus: Helion Energy focuses on developing fusion energy through their proprietary fusion engine, known as the Fusion Engine with Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) technology.
    • Uniqueness: They emphasize scalability and cost-effectiveness, aiming to achieve fusion energy through a compact, high-power-density approach suitable for commercial deployment.
    • End-User Segments: Potential applications span energy-intensive industries, grid stabilization efforts, and regions seeking energy independence with clean and reliable power sources.
  • General Fusion:
    • Technology Focus: General Fusion pursues fusion energy through Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) technology, utilizing compression techniques involving liquid metal to create a controlled fusion reaction.
    • Uniqueness: Their unique approach combines elements of plasma physics with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to achieve fusion energy, aiming for practical and economical scalability.
    • End-User Segments: Their technology targets utility-scale energy generation, industrial processes requiring high energy outputs, and regions transitioning to sustainable energy solutions.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Technology Enhancements: MIT researchers are advancing fusion energy through innovations in high-temperature superconducting magnets and plasma confinement techniques. They are developing compact and efficient reactor designs that aim to achieve sustained fusion reactions at temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius.
    • Uniqueness of Research: MIT’s approach includes the use of novel materials and advanced computational models to optimize plasma stability and energy output. They are also exploring innovative fusion fuel cycles and materials for reactor components to enhance durability and safety.
    • End-use Applications: Successful development of fusion energy at MIT could revolutionize global energy production by providing abundant, carbon-free electricity. Fusion reactors could potentially replace fossil fuel-based power plants and mitigate climate change while meeting increasing energy demands globally.
  • Princeton University:
    • Technology Enhancements: Princeton researchers are focusing on magnetic confinement fusion through advancements in tokamak design and plasma heating techniques. They are optimizing magnetic field configurations and developing new methods to sustain high-energy plasma states for extended periods.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Princeton’s research emphasizes collaborative efforts with national and international fusion energy projects, such as ITER. They are contributing to the development of next-generation fusion reactors capable of achieving sustained nuclear fusion reactions with minimal external energy input.
    • End-use Applications: The success of Princeton’s fusion research could lead to transformative changes in energy infrastructure, offering a reliable and sustainable source of electricity. Fusion energy has potential applications in industries requiring high energy densities, such as space exploration and heavy manufacturing.
  • University of Oxford:
    • Technology Enhancements: Oxford researchers are exploring alternative approaches to fusion energy, including inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and laser-driven fusion reactions. They are developing advanced laser systems and target designs to achieve ignition and sustain fusion reactions in laboratory conditions.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Oxford’s research includes collaborations with international research facilities to scale up laser-driven fusion experiments and validate theoretical models of plasma physics. They are also investigating innovative fusion fuel cycles and materials for reactor components to enhance efficiency and safety.
    • End-use Applications: Successful development of fusion energy at Oxford could provide a scalable and environmentally benign energy source for global electricity generation. Fusion reactors could contribute to achieving energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in energy-intensive industries and remote regions.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

While commercial fusion power plants are not yet a reality, several startups aim to demonstrate net energy gain and pave the way for commercialization within the next decade.