Magnetic Heat Pumps

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Magnetic heat pumps utilize the magnetocaloric effect, a phenomenon where certain materials heat up when magnetized and cool down when demagnetized, to provide efficient and environmentally friendly heating and cooling. This technology offers an alternative to traditional vapor-compression heat pumps, with the potential for higher efficiency and the use of solid-state refrigerants, eliminating the need for harmful greenhouse gases.

Impact on climate action

Magnetic Heat Pumps in the Heat Pumps domain revolutionize climate action by offering efficient and sustainable heating and cooling solutions. By utilizing magnetic materials to transfer heat, these pumps reduce energy consumption, lower carbon emissions, and promote the adoption of renewable energy, mitigating climate change impacts.


  • Magnetocaloric Effect: The magnetocaloric effect is the basis of magnetic heat pumps. When a magnetocaloric material is exposed to a magnetic field, its temperature increases. Conversely, when the magnetic field is removed, the material cools down.
  • Magnetic Refrigeration Cycle: Magnetic heat pumps utilize a thermodynamic cycle similar to vapor-compression heat pumps, but instead of using a compressor and expansion valve, they use a magnetic field to drive the heating and cooling process.
  • Magnetocaloric Materials: Various materials exhibit the magnetocaloric effect, including gadolinium, lanthanum-iron-silicon alloys, and nickel-manganese-based alloys. Research is ongoing to develop new and improved magnetocaloric materials with higher performance and lower costs.

TRL : 4-5

Prominent Innovation themes

  • High-Performance Magnetocaloric Materials: Researchers are developing new magnetocaloric materials with higher magnetocaloric effects and improved thermal properties, enhancing the efficiency and performance of magnetic heat pumps.
  • Magnetic Circuit Design and Optimization: Innovations in magnetic circuit design and optimization are improving the efficiency and effectiveness of magnetic field generation and control in magnetic heat pumps.
  • System Design and Integration: Researchers and startups are developing innovative system designs for magnetic heat pumps, including rotary and reciprocating designs, to optimize performance and scalability.
  • Hybrid Magnetic-Conventional Heat Pumps: Hybrid systems that combine magnetic heat pumps with traditional vapor-compression heat pumps are being explored to leverage the advantages of both technologies.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Magnetocaloric Material Advancements
  • Optimization of Magnetic Circuit Design
  • Hybrid Magnetic-Conventional Heat Pump Systems
  • Scalability in Magnetic Heat Pump Technology
  • Enhanced Thermal Properties of Magnetocaloric Materials
  • Magnetic Heat Pump System Efficiency
  • Integration of Magnetic Heat Pumps in Existing Infrastructure
  • Novel Applications of Magnetic Heat Pumps
  • Advancements in Magnetic Refrigeration Cycles
  • Magnetocaloric Material Characterization Techniques

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  1. Magnotherm Solutions:
    • Technology Enhancement: Magnotherm Solutions focuses on developing magnetic refrigeration and heat pump systems based on magnetocaloric materials. These materials undergo temperature changes in response to magnetic fields, enabling efficient heat transfer without the use of traditional refrigerants such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Their technology offers a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative for heating and cooling applications.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Magnotherm Solutions stands out for its expertise in magnetocaloric materials and its commitment to advancing magnetic heat pump technology. By harnessing the properties of these materials, they offer energy-efficient and eco-friendly solutions for residential, commercial, and industrial heating and cooling needs.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Magnotherm Solutions serves customers across various sectors seeking energy-efficient and sustainable heating and cooling solutions. Their magnetic heat pumps can be deployed in residential buildings, commercial facilities, refrigeration systems, and HVAC applications, providing benefits such as reduced energy consumption, lower operating costs, and environmental compliance.
  2. Cooltech Applications:
    • Technology Enhancement: Cooltech Applications specializes in magnetic refrigeration systems for cooling and heat pumping applications. Their technology utilizes the magnetocaloric effect to achieve efficient and environmentally friendly cooling without the use of compressors or refrigerants with high global warming potential (GWP). Cooltech’s systems offer silent operation, precise temperature control, and energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Cooltech Applications stands out for its patented magnetic refrigeration technology and its focus on providing sustainable cooling solutions. Their systems offer a compact footprint, high efficiency, and long-term reliability, making them suitable for various cooling applications in residential, commercial, and industrial settings.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Cooltech Applications serves customers in the refrigeration, HVAC, and appliance industries seeking innovative and environmentally friendly cooling solutions. Their magnetic refrigeration systems can be integrated into refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, and heat pumps, offering improved energy efficiency, reduced environmental impact, and enhanced user comfort.
  3. Camfridge Ltd.:
    • Technology Enhancement: Camfridge Ltd. specializes in the development of magnetic refrigeration technology for commercial and industrial refrigeration applications. Their systems use the magnetocaloric effect to provide efficient and reliable cooling without the use of traditional refrigerants such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) or hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Camfridge’s technology offers energy savings, reduced maintenance requirements, and lower environmental impact compared to conventional refrigeration systems.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Camfridge Ltd. stands out for its patented magnetic refrigeration technology and its focus on addressing sustainability challenges in the refrigeration industry. Their systems offer a scalable and cost-effective solution for commercial refrigeration applications, including supermarkets, cold storage facilities, and food processing plants.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Camfridge Ltd. serves customers in the commercial refrigeration sector seeking energy-efficient and environmentally friendly cooling solutions. Their magnetic refrigeration systems can be retrofitted into existing refrigeration equipment or integrated into new installations, providing benefits such as reduced energy costs, improved temperature control, and compliance with environmental regulations.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  1. University of Cambridge:
    • Research Focus: The University of Cambridge is at the forefront of research on Magnetic Heat Pumps, focusing on developing novel materials and magnetocaloric technologies for efficient and environmentally friendly heating and cooling applications.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves exploring the magnetocaloric effect, where certain materials exhibit changes in temperature in response to variations in an applied magnetic field. By designing and synthesizing advanced magnetic materials with tailored properties, they aim to enhance the efficiency, reliability, and scalability of magnetic heat pump systems.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in residential, commercial, and industrial heating and cooling systems. Magnetic heat pumps offer an energy-efficient and sustainable alternative to conventional vapor compression systems, enabling precise temperature control, reduced energy consumption, and lower environmental impact.
  2. Ames Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy):
    • Research Focus: Ames Laboratory, operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, conducts cutting-edge research on Magnetic Heat Pumps, leveraging its expertise in materials science, magnetism, and thermal engineering to advance the development of next-generation heat pump technologies.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses fundamental studies of magnetocaloric materials, including rare-earth alloys, transition metal compounds, and hybrid systems. They investigate the thermodynamic properties, phase transitions, and magnetic behaviors of these materials to identify new candidates for efficient heat pumping applications.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in residential and commercial HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems, refrigeration units, and thermal management solutions. Magnetic heat pumps offer benefits such as higher efficiency, quieter operation, and reduced environmental impact compared to traditional refrigeration cycles, making them attractive for various heating and cooling applications.
  3. Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany):
    • Research Focus: The Technical University of Darmstadt is engaged in innovative research on Magnetic Heat Pumps, focusing on developing advanced magnetocaloric materials, heat exchanger designs, and system integration strategies for efficient and reliable thermal management solutions.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves experimental characterization, numerical modeling, and optimization of magnetic refrigeration cycles, with a focus on improving energy efficiency, temperature stability, and system performance. They also explore potential applications in waste heat recovery, thermal storage, and renewable energy integration.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work find applications in residential and commercial buildings, automotive air conditioning, and industrial process cooling. Magnetic heat pumps offer advantages such as compact size, modular design, and compatibility with renewable energy sources, enabling sustainable and cost-effective heating and cooling solutions in diverse environments.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Magnetic heat pumps are still in the early stages of commercialization, with limited availability of commercial products. However, several companies and research institutions are actively developing and testing prototypes, and the technology is expected to become more commercially viable in the coming years.