Soil Carbon Sequestration Technologies

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

These technologies aim to increase the amount of carbon stored in the soil, improving soil health and mitigating climate change. Some prominent examples include:

  • Biochar: This charcoal-like material is produced from biomass and can store carbon in the soil for centuries. Startups like Standard Bio and Carbon Gold are developing innovative biochar solutions for agricultural applications.
  • Compost: Compost application adds organic matter and nutrients to the soil, improving soil health and promoting carbon sequestration.

Impact on climate action

Soil Carbon Sequestration Technologies in regenerative agriculture play a pivotal role in climate action by enhancing carbon storage in soils. By fostering practices like composting, cover cropping, and no-till farming, these innovations mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, improve soil health, and contribute to long-term climate resilience while ensuring sustainable food production.


  • Soil Carbon Sequestration: Soil carbon sequestration refers to the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide in the soil. This is a natural process that can be enhanced through regenerative agricultural practices and soil carbon sequestration technologies.
  • Biochar: Biochar is a charcoal-like material produced from biomass through pyrolysis, a process that involves heating biomass in the absence of oxygen. Biochar is highly porous and can store carbon in the soil for centuries, while also improving soil health by increasing water retention, nutrient availability, and microbial activity.
  • Compost: Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost application adds organic matter and nutrients to the soil, improving soil health and promoting carbon sequestration.
  • Other Soil Amendments: Other soil amendments, such as humic substances and biopolymers, can also be used to improve soil health and promote carbon sequestration.

TRL : 6-7

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Engineered Biochar: Startups like Standard Bio are developing engineered biochar products that are tailored to specific agricultural needs and soil types. This involves optimizing the production process and adding beneficial microbes and nutrients to the biochar.
  • Novel Soil Amendments: Startups like SoilCQuest are developing novel soil amendments that can accelerate the natural process of soil carbon sequestration.
  • Soil Carbon Measurement and Verification: Accurate and reliable methods for measuring and verifying soil carbon sequestration are essential for monetizing carbon credits and ensuring the effectiveness of soil carbon sequestration projects.
  • Integration with Regenerative Practices: Soil carbon sequestration technologies are most effective when integrated with other regenerative agricultural practices, such as cover cropping and no-till farming.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Enhanced Biochar Production Techniques
  • Microbial Augmented Biochar
  • Customized Soil Amendments
  • Precision Soil Carbon Sequestration
  • Carbon Credits Monetization Strategies
  • Regenerative Agriculture Integration
  • Advanced Soil Carbon Measurement Methods
  • Biochar Application Optimization
  • Novel Soil Microbial Solutions
  • Tailored Soil Health Solutions
  • Accelerated Soil Carbon Sequestration
  • Predictive Modeling for Sequestration Rates
  • Next-Gen Compost Technologies
  • Carbon Sequestration Certification Standards
  • Soil Microbe-Enhanced Carbon Sequestration
  • Community-Based Carbon Farming Initiatives

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Standard Bio:
    • Technology Enhancement: Standard Bio specializes in soil carbon sequestration through biochar production and application. Biochar is a charcoal-like substance produced from organic waste materials through a process called pyrolysis. When applied to soil, biochar enhances soil fertility, water retention, and carbon storage, contributing to climate change mitigation and agricultural sustainability.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Standard Bio distinguishes itself through its proprietary biochar production technology and formulations optimized for soil carbon sequestration. They leverage innovative pyrolysis processes and sustainable feedstocks to produce high-quality biochar products tailored to specific soil types and cropping systems.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Standard Bio serves agricultural producers, land managers, and environmental organizations seeking to enhance soil health and mitigate climate change impacts. Their biochar products are used in various agricultural sectors, including row crops, orchards, vineyards, and pasturelands, to improve soil structure, fertility, and resilience.
  • Carbon Gold:
    • Technology Enhancement: Carbon Gold develops biochar-based soil amendments and microbial products designed to enhance soil health and carbon sequestration. Their biochar products, enriched with beneficial microbes and organic nutrients, improve soil structure, microbial activity, and nutrient cycling, leading to increased carbon storage and crop productivity.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Carbon Gold stands out for its focus on combining biochar with beneficial microbes to maximize soil carbon sequestration and agricultural productivity. Their proprietary formulations harness the synergistic effects of biochar and microbial activity to enhance soil fertility, carbon retention, and plant resilience.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Carbon Gold serves organic and conventional growers, landscapers, and land managers seeking to improve soil health and sustainability. Their biochar-based products are used in horticulture, agriculture, and landscaping applications to promote regenerative practices and mitigate climate change impacts.
  • SoilCQuest:
    • Technology Enhancement: SoilCQuest specializes in soil carbon sequestration through the development of carbon-enhanced agricultural products and practices. They focus on enhancing soil organic carbon levels through biochar application, soil amendments, and agronomic techniques that promote carbon capture, retention, and cycling in agricultural ecosystems.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: SoilCQuest differentiates itself through its holistic approach to soil carbon sequestration, integrating biochar technology with sustainable farming practices and carbon farming methodologies. They collaborate with research institutions, agricultural organizations, and government agencies to develop innovative solutions for enhancing soil carbon storage and mitigating climate change impacts.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: SoilCQuest serves farmers, landholders, and agricultural stakeholders seeking to adopt carbon-smart practices and enhance soil carbon sequestration. Their technologies and products are designed to improve soil health, resilience, and productivity while contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation and environmental sustainability.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • University of California, Davis:
    • Research Focus: UC Davis conducts research on Soil Carbon Sequestration Technologies, focusing on developing and implementing practices that enhance carbon storage in agricultural soils, thereby mitigating climate change and improving soil health.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves studying the effects of various agricultural management practices, such as cover cropping, reduced tillage, and organic amendments, on soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions.
    • End-use Applications: Their work has applications in climate-smart agriculture, carbon farming, and sustainable land management. For example, they’re researching precision nutrient management techniques to optimize fertilizer use efficiency and minimize nitrous oxide emissions, evaluating the potential of biochar and compost amendments for enhancing soil carbon sequestration and fertility, and developing decision support tools and extension programs to promote the adoption of soil carbon-enhancing practices by farmers and land managers.
  • Cornell University:
    • Research Focus: Cornell University is actively involved in research on Soil Carbon Sequestration Technologies, exploring innovative approaches for enhancing soil organic matter accumulation and carbon storage in agricultural and natural ecosystems.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves investigating the biological, physical, and chemical processes that control soil carbon dynamics and developing predictive models and monitoring techniques for assessing soil carbon stocks and fluxes.
    • End-use Applications: Their work finds applications in climate mitigation, ecosystem restoration, and sustainable agriculture. For instance, they’re researching agroecological practices such as agroforestry and perennial cropping systems that promote soil carbon sequestration while enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem resilience, assessing the potential of managed grazing and rotational grazing systems for increasing soil carbon stocks in grassland ecosystems, and conducting field trials and demonstration projects to validate the effectiveness of soil carbon sequestration technologies under different agroclimatic conditions.
  • Wageningen University & Research:
    • Research Focus: Wageningen University & Research is a global leader in agricultural research, including soil carbon sequestration, focusing on developing science-based solutions for enhancing soil fertility and mitigating climate change.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves conducting long-term field experiments and meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of soil management practices for increasing soil carbon stocks and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
    • End-use Applications: Their work has applications in sustainable land use planning, carbon offsetting, and climate policy. For example, they’re researching landscape-level approaches to soil carbon sequestration, such as agroforestry and riparian buffer strips, that maximize carbon storage potential while providing additional ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation and water quality improvement, developing carbon accounting methodologies and certification standards for quantifying and verifying soil carbon offsets from agricultural and forestry projects, and collaborating with policymakers and stakeholders to design incentive mechanisms and financial instruments that promote investments in soil carbon sequestration technologies and reward farmers for adopting climate-smart practices.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Biochar and compost are already being used in commercial-scale agriculture, but their adoption is still relatively limited. However, with increasing awareness of their benefits and growing demand for sustainable agricultural practices, the use of these soil carbon sequestration technologies is expected to increase.