Solid-State Batteries

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Solid-state batteries are a type of battery technology that utilizes solid electrolytes instead of the liquid or gel electrolytes found in conventional lithium-ion batteries. This fundamental difference offers several potential advantages, including higher energy density, improved safety, and longer lifespan.

Impact on climate action

Solid-State Batteries in the Battery Storage sector propel climate action by enhancing energy storage efficiency and safety. By replacing liquid electrolytes with solid materials, these batteries offer higher energy density, longer lifespan, and reduced risk of thermal runaway, accelerating the transition to renewable energy and mitigating carbon emissions.


  • Solid Electrolytes: Solid-state batteries employ solid electrolytes, which can be ceramic, polymer, or glass-based materials. These solid electrolytes conduct ions between the electrodes, enabling the flow of electricity.
  • Electrode Materials: Solid-state batteries can utilize various electrode materials, including lithium metal, which offers higher energy density compared to the graphite anodes used in conventional lithium-ion batteries.
  • Cell Design and Manufacturing: Solid-state batteries require different cell designs and manufacturing processes compared to traditional batteries due to the use of solid electrolytes.

TRL : 5-6

Prominent Innovation themes

  • High-Conductivity Solid Electrolytes: Researchers are developing new solid electrolyte materials with higher ionic conductivity, improving the performance and charging speed of solid-state batteries.
  • Stable Interfaces: Ensuring stable interfaces between the solid electrolyte and the electrode materials is crucial for preventing dendrite formation and ensuring battery safety and longevity.
  • Scalable Manufacturing Processes: Developing scalable and cost-effective manufacturing processes for solid-state batteries is essential for their commercialization and widespread adoption.
  • All-Solid-State Battery Design: All-solid-state batteries eliminate all liquid components, further improving safety and enabling the use of higher-energy-density materials.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Enhanced Energy Density
  • Advanced Safety Features
  • Extended Lifespan
  • Rapid Charging Capabilities
  • Improved Environmental Impact
  • Enhanced Thermal Stability
  • Enhanced Durability
  • Optimal Cell Design
  • Enhanced Cycle Life
  • Cost-effective Manufacturing
  • Novel Electrolyte Materials
  • Innovative Electrode Designs
  • Scalable Production Techniques
  • Integration in Electric Vehicles
  • Application in Grid-scale Storage
  • Miniaturization for Portable Devices
  • Optimization for IoT Devices
  • Enhanced Efficiency in Energy Conversion
  • Tailored Solutions for Specific Industries

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  1. QuantumScape:
    • Technology Enhancement: QuantumScape is a leading developer of solid-state battery technology for electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage applications. Their solid-state batteries feature a unique lithium-metal anode and ceramic electrolyte design, offering higher energy density, faster charging, and improved safety compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries. QuantumScape’s technology aims to revolutionize the EV market by enabling longer driving ranges and shorter charging times.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: QuantumScape stands out for its breakthrough in solid-state battery technology, which addresses key limitations of conventional lithium-ion batteries, such as energy density and safety concerns. Their partnership with Volkswagen Group demonstrates industry validation and the potential for widespread adoption of solid-state batteries in next-generation electric vehicles.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: QuantumScape primarily targets the automotive industry, specifically electric vehicle manufacturers, seeking to enhance the performance and range of their vehicles. Additionally, their solid-state batteries have potential applications in stationary energy storage systems, consumer electronics, and aerospace, offering high-energy-density and long-lasting power solutions.
  2. Solid Power:
    • Technology Enhancement: Solid Power specializes in the development of high-performance solid-state batteries for electric vehicles, aerospace, and other applications. Their solid-state batteries feature a lithium-metal anode, solid electrolyte, and cathode materials optimized for improved energy density, cycle life, and safety. Solid Power’s technology aims to address the scalability and commercialization challenges of solid-state batteries for mass-market adoption.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Solid Power stands out for its focus on scaling up solid-state battery production and commercialization, leveraging partnerships with automotive and aerospace industry leaders. Their approach combines innovative materials science with scalable manufacturing processes, paving the way for cost-effective and reliable solid-state battery solutions.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Solid Power targets electric vehicle manufacturers, aerospace companies, and other industries seeking advanced energy storage solutions. Their solid-state batteries offer potential benefits such as longer driving ranges, faster charging, and enhanced safety, addressing the evolving needs of electric mobility and energy storage markets.
  3. Ionic Materials:
    • Technology Enhancement: Ionic Materials is a pioneer in polymer-based solid-state battery technology, offering advanced materials and electrolytes for next-generation energy storage solutions. Their polymer electrolyte enables the development of solid-state batteries with high ionic conductivity, mechanical flexibility, and compatibility with various electrode materials. Ionic Materials’ technology aims to overcome the performance limitations of traditional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Ionic Materials stands out for its proprietary polymer electrolyte technology, which provides a scalable and cost-effective platform for solid-state battery development. Their materials offer advantages such as improved safety, thermal stability, and manufacturability, accelerating the commercialization of solid-state batteries for electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and stationary storage.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Ionic Materials serves battery manufacturers, electric vehicle OEMs, and consumer electronics companies seeking to adopt solid-state battery technology. Their polymer electrolyte solutions enable the production of safer, longer-lasting, and higher-performing batteries, addressing market demand for energy-dense and environmentally friendly energy storage solutions.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Research Focus: MIT is a pioneer in the field of Solid-State Batteries, focusing on developing novel materials, fabrication techniques, and battery architectures to overcome the limitations of conventional lithium-ion batteries and enable the widespread adoption of solid-state energy storage technologies.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses the synthesis and characterization of advanced solid electrolytes, electrode materials, and interfaces tailored for high-performance solid-state batteries. They also investigate innovative manufacturing processes, such as additive manufacturing and thin-film deposition, to improve battery performance, reliability, and scalability.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in electric vehicles, grid-scale energy storage, and portable electronics. By developing safer, higher energy density, and longer-lasting solid-state batteries, MIT’s research contributes to accelerating the electrification of transportation, enhancing renewable energy integration, and enabling the transition to a sustainable and resilient energy infrastructure.
  2. Stanford University:
    • Research Focus: Stanford University conducts cutting-edge research on Solid-State Batteries, leveraging its expertise in materials science, electrochemistry, and nanotechnology to develop advanced solid electrolytes, interfaces, and electrodes for next-generation energy storage devices.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves the design and synthesis of novel solid-state electrolyte materials, such as sulfide, oxide, and garnet-based compounds, with enhanced ionic conductivity, stability, and safety. They also explore new electrode architectures, such as lithium metal anodes and high-capacity cathode materials, to increase energy density and cycle life.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work find applications in electric aviation, renewable energy storage, and wearable electronics. By pushing the boundaries of solid-state battery technology, Stanford’s research enables the development of lightweight, compact, and high-performance energy storage solutions for a wide range of applications, from consumer electronics to aerospace.
  3. University of California, Berkeley:
    • Research Focus: UC Berkeley is engaged in innovative research on Solid-State Batteries, leveraging its multidisciplinary expertise in materials engineering, device physics, and electrochemical analysis to advance the fundamental understanding and practical implementation of solid-state energy storage systems.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses fundamental studies on ion transport mechanisms, interface phenomena, and degradation mechanisms in solid-state batteries to elucidate key performance-limiting factors and guide the design of improved battery materials and architectures. They also develop computational models and simulation tools to accelerate materials discovery and optimize battery performance.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in microelectronics, medical implants, and energy-efficient buildings. By addressing the technical challenges associated with solid-state battery technology, UC Berkeley’s research enables the development of compact, reliable, and long-lasting energy storage solutions for a diverse range of applications, contributing to enhanced energy security and sustainability.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Solid-state batteries are still in the early stages of commercialization, with limited availability of commercial products. However, several companies and research institutions are actively developing and testing prototypes, and the technology is expected to become more commercially viable in the coming years.