3D Printing of Buildings and Structures

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

3D printing of buildings and structures involves using large-scale 3D printers to deposit materials layer by layer, creating three-dimensional structures directly from digital designs. This method offers significant advantages over traditional construction techniques, including reduced waste, faster construction times, and greater design freedom.

Impact on climate action

The innovation of 3D printing buildings and structures revolutionizes construction, offering sustainable, low-carbon materials like recycled plastics and bio-based composites. This method significantly reduces carbon emissions by minimizing waste and transportation, accelerating climate action by promoting eco-friendly alternatives in the construction industry.


  • Additive Manufacturing: 3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing, where materials are added layer by layer to create a three-dimensional object, guided by a digital design file.
  • Extrusion-Based Printing: Most construction 3D printers use an extrusion-based system, where a nozzle deposits a continuous stream of material, such as concrete, mortar, or even bio-based composites.
  • Robotic Automation: Robotic arms control the movement of the printing nozzle, enabling precise deposition of materials according to the digital design.
  • Specialized Materials: 3D printing in construction utilizes specially formulated materials that are optimized for printability, strength, and durability.

TRL : Varied, ranging from 5-6 (pilot projects and demonstrations) to 7-8 (commercially available and used in small-scale projects).

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Contour Crafting: This technique involves depositing a continuous stream of concrete along a predetermined path, building walls layer by layer.
  • Concrete 3D Printing: Large-scale 3D printers are used to print concrete structures, such as walls, columns, and even entire houses.
  • Hybrid 3D Printing: Combining 3D printing with traditional construction methods, where 3D printed elements are integrated with other materials like steel or timber.
  • 3D Printed Formwork: Printing reusable formwork for concrete structures, reducing the need for traditional formwork materials and labor.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Additive Manufacturing Revolution
  • Extrusion-Based Construction Printing
  • Robotic Precision Deposition
  • Advanced Printability Materials
  • Contour Crafting Innovation
  • Large-Scale Concrete Printing
  • Whole Building Printing
  • Hybrid Construction Techniques
  • Integrative 3D Printing Methods
  • Structural Printing Advancements
  • Sustainable Construction Solutions
  • Digital Design Flexibility
  • Rapid Prototyping in Construction
  • On-Site 3D Printing Capabilities
  • Customizable Building Elements
  • Automated Formwork Creation
  • Reduced Construction Waste
  • Accelerated Construction Timelines

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • ICON:
    • Technology Focus: ICON is at the forefront of 3D printing technology for construction. They focus on using robotics, software, and advanced materials to print homes and other structures quickly and cost-effectively.
    • Uniqueness: ICON stands out for its dedication to addressing housing challenges globally through innovative 3D printing solutions. Their technology allows for rapid construction of resilient, affordable, and customizable homes, even in challenging environments.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include governments, NGOs, and private developers looking for scalable, sustainable housing solutions, particularly in areas prone to housing shortages or natural disasters.
  • Apis Cor:
    • Technology Focus: Apis Cor specializes in mobile 3D printing technology for construction. They focus on developing compact, portable printers capable of constructing buildings on-site using a variety of materials.
    • Uniqueness: Apis Cor is unique for its emphasis on mobility and flexibility in construction. Their printers can be deployed quickly to virtually any location, enabling rapid on-site construction without the need for extensive infrastructure.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments may include construction companies, real estate developers, and governments seeking efficient and adaptable construction solutions for various projects, including affordable housing, disaster relief, and infrastructure development.
  • Mighty Buildings:
    • Technology Focus: Mighty Buildings specializes in 3D printing prefabricated modules for building construction. They leverage automation, robotics, and sustainable materials to produce modular components that can be assembled on-site quickly.
    • Uniqueness: Mighty Buildings stands out for its focus on sustainability and customization. Their technology allows for the production of eco-friendly buildings with tailored designs, offering both aesthetic appeal and environmental benefits.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments may include architects, developers, and homeowners seeking sustainable and customizable building solutions, such as residential properties, commercial buildings, and mixed-use developments.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Technology Enhancements: MIT researchers are at the forefront of developing advanced 3D printing technologies specifically tailored for construction materials. They are working on enhancing printing techniques, material formulations, and structural design algorithms to optimize the printing process and improve the quality and performance of printed structures.
    • Uniqueness of Research: MIT’s approach involves the integration of robotics, automation, and digital fabrication technologies into the construction industry. They are exploring novel printing methods such as contour crafting and robotic arm extrusion to enable the rapid and precise construction of complex structures using low-carbon materials.
    • End-use Applications: The research at MIT has significant implications for the construction sector, offering solutions for affordable housing, infrastructure development, and disaster relief efforts. By leveraging 3D printing technology, builders can reduce material waste, construction time, and carbon emissions while creating innovative and sustainable built environments.
  • Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e):
    • Technology Enhancements: TU/e researchers are pioneering the development of novel materials specifically designed for 3D printing in construction. They are exploring alternative low-carbon materials such as recycled plastics, bio-based polymers, and sustainable aggregates to reduce the environmental footprint of construction projects.
    • Uniqueness of Research: TU/e’s research focuses on the integration of circular economy principles into the design and manufacturing of construction materials. They are investigating closed-loop recycling systems and additive manufacturing techniques to create building components with minimal waste and maximum reusability.
    • End-use Applications: The research at TU/e has applications across various construction sectors, including residential, commercial, and industrial projects. By utilizing 3D printing technology and low-carbon materials, builders can construct energy-efficient buildings, reduce construction costs, and mitigate the environmental impact of the built environment.
  • Nanyang Technological University (NTU):
    • Technology Enhancements: NTU researchers are exploring advanced 3D printing techniques such as powder bed fusion and binder jetting for the fabrication of construction materials. They are developing customized printing systems and material formulations to enable the rapid prototyping and production of building components with enhanced structural integrity and durability.
    • Uniqueness of Research: NTU’s research emphasizes the integration of digital design tools and computational modeling techniques into the 3D printing process. They are leveraging parametric design software and finite element analysis to optimize the geometry and performance of printed structures while minimizing material usage and waste.
    • End-use Applications: The research at NTU spans a wide range of construction applications, including prefabricated building components, customized architectural features, and infrastructure elements. By harnessing the capabilities of 3D printing technology, builders can create bespoke, high-performance structures that are tailored to the specific needs of their projects while reducing environmental impact and construction time.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

While still in its early stages, 3D printing of buildings and structures is gaining traction, with several startups and companies offering commercial services. Small-scale projects, such as single-family homes, offices, and public amenities, have been successfully printed, and larger-scale projects are under development.