Bio-Based Building Materials

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Bio-based building materials are construction materials derived from renewable biological resources, such as timber, bamboo, hemp, straw, algae, and even fungi. These materials offer a sustainable alternative to conventional materials like concrete and steel, which are energy-intensive to produce and contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions.

Impact on climate action

The adoption of Bio-Based Building Materials revolutionizes low-carbon construction, significantly reducing emissions associated with traditional materials like concrete and steel. By utilizing renewable resources, it minimizes environmental impact, promotes sustainability, and advances climate action goals by fostering a shift towards eco-friendly construction practices.


  • Sustainable Sourcing and Harvesting: Ensuring the sustainable sourcing and harvesting of biological resources is crucial for the long-term viability of bio-based building materials.
  • Material Processing and Modification: Various techniques, such as drying, pressing, and chemical treatment, are employed to enhance the durability, strength, and fire resistance of bio-based materials.
  • Bio-Based Composites: Combining different bio-based materials, such as wood fibers and bio-resins, can create composite materials with enhanced properties.

TRL : Varied, ranging from 4-5 (lab-scale development and testing) to 7-8 (commercially available and used in demonstration projects).

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Engineered Timber: Cross-laminated timber (CLT) and other engineered wood products offer high strength and dimensional stability, making them suitable for large-scale construction projects.
  • Hempcrete: A lightweight and insulating material made from hemp fibers and lime, hempcrete offers excellent thermal performance and carbon sequestration benefits.
  • Bamboo Construction: Bamboo, a fast-growing and renewable resource, is increasingly being used in construction, offering strength, flexibility, and a unique aesthetic appeal.
  • Mycelium Composites: Mycelium, the root structure of fungi, can be grown into various shapes and forms, creating lightweight and biodegradable composites.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Renewable Resource Sourcing
  • Material Enhancement Techniques
  • Bio-Based Composite Development
  • Cross-Laminated Timber Engineering
  • Lightweight Hempcrete Production
  • Thermal Performance Optimization
  • Sustainable Bamboo Utilization
  • Fast-Growing Resource Applications
  • Mycelium Composite Innovation
  • Structural Bio-Based Materials
  • Fire Resistance Enhancement
  • Biodegradable Material Design
  • Carbon Sequestration Strategies
  • Energy-Efficient Construction Solutions
  • Bio-Resin Applications in Construction
  • Dimensional Stability Improvement
  • Seismic Resistance Development
  • Aesthetic Advancements in Bio-Based Materials

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Ecovative Design:
    • Technology Focus: Ecovative Design specializes in using mycelium, the root structure of mushrooms, to create bio-based materials. These materials can be used for packaging, insulation, and even construction.
    • Uniqueness: Their approach involves harnessing the natural properties of mycelium to grow sustainable materials that are biodegradable, lightweight, and durable. This innovative technique offers an eco-friendly alternative to traditional building materials.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments may include industries seeking sustainable packaging solutions, architects and builders looking for eco-friendly construction materials, and consumers interested in environmentally conscious products.
  • Strawcture:
    • Technology Focus: Strawcture focuses on utilizing straw as a primary building material for construction purposes. They leverage innovative techniques to process and treat straw, making it a viable and durable alternative to traditional building materials.
    • Uniqueness: Their specialization in using straw for construction sets them apart, offering a renewable and cost-effective solution for sustainable building projects. By optimizing the processing and treatment of straw, they enhance its structural integrity and longevity.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments could include architects, developers, and homeowners seeking sustainable building materials for residential, commercial, and industrial construction projects.
  • Bamboo Living:
    • Technology Focus: Bamboo Living specializes in utilizing bamboo as a versatile building material for residential and commercial construction. They employ innovative techniques to process and treat bamboo, making it suitable for various structural applications.
    • Uniqueness: Bamboo Living stands out for its focus on bamboo, a rapidly renewable resource known for its strength, flexibility, and sustainability. Their expertise lies in maximizing the potential of bamboo as a building material through innovative design and engineering.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments may include architects, builders, and individuals interested in eco-friendly and resilient construction solutions, particularly in regions where bamboo is abundant.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Wageningen University & Research:
    • Technology Enhancements: Wageningen University & Research is pioneering the development of bio-based building materials by integrating innovative technologies such as 3D printing and nanotechnology. They are exploring the use of bio-based polymers and composites derived from renewable sources to create sustainable construction materials.
    • Uniqueness of Research: The research at Wageningen University & Research stands out for its emphasis on circularity and biodegradability. They are investigating bio-based materials that can be easily recycled or composted at the end of their lifecycle, minimizing environmental impact and promoting a circular economy.
    • End-use Applications: The bio-based building materials developed at Wageningen have diverse applications in construction, including insulation, structural elements, and facade systems. These materials offer comparable performance to traditional construction materials while significantly reducing carbon emissions and reliance on finite resources.
  • University of British Columbia (UBC):
    • Technology Enhancements: UBC researchers are leveraging advanced manufacturing techniques such as modular construction and prefabrication to accelerate the adoption of bio-based building materials. They are developing standardized building components and systems using bio-based materials to streamline construction processes and improve efficiency.
    • Uniqueness of Research: UBC’s research focuses on the scalability and commercial viability of bio-based building materials. They are collaborating with industry partners to optimize manufacturing processes and lower production costs, making bio-based materials more accessible to the construction sector.
    • End-use Applications: The bio-based building materials developed at UBC can be used in a wide range of construction projects, including residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. By replacing conventional materials such as concrete and steel with bio-based alternatives, these materials contribute to carbon sequestration and mitigate the environmental impact of the construction industry.
  • Kyoto University:
    • Technology Enhancements: Kyoto University is at the forefront of research on bio-based building materials with a focus on enhancing their durability and resilience. They are developing bio-based composites reinforced with natural fibers or additives to improve mechanical properties and withstand environmental stresses.
    • Uniqueness of Research: The research at Kyoto University emphasizes the cultural and historical aspects of sustainable construction practices. They are exploring traditional Japanese building techniques and materials, such as bamboo and timber, to inspire innovative bio-based solutions for modern construction challenges.
    • End-use Applications: The bio-based building materials developed at Kyoto University are suitable for heritage conservation projects, as well as contemporary sustainable architecture. By preserving and revitalizing traditional building knowledge, these materials contribute to the preservation of cultural heritage while promoting sustainable development.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Several bio-based building materials are already commercially available and being used in a growing number of construction projects. CLT is becoming increasingly popular for multi-story buildings, hempcrete is being used in residential construction, and bamboo is finding applications in various structural and decorative elements.