Electric and Hybrid-Electric Aircraft

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft are aircraft that utilize electric power for propulsion, either entirely or in combination with conventional combustion engines.

  • All-Electric Aircraft: These aircraft are powered solely by electric motors, drawing energy from onboard batteries. They are typically smaller aircraft designed for shorter routes, such as regional flights and air taxis.
  • Hybrid-Electric Aircraft: These aircraft combine electric motors with traditional combustion engines, leveraging both electric and fuel power for propulsion. Hybrid systems offer greater range and flexibility compared to all-electric aircraft, making them suitable for larger aircraft and longer flights.

Impact on climate action

Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft hold promise for low-carbon aviation, significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to traditional fossil fuel-powered planes. Their adoption can accelerate the aviation industry’s transition towards sustainability, contributing to global efforts to mitigate climate change by curbing carbon footprint from air travel, fostering cleaner skies.


  • Battery Technology: High-capacity, lightweight batteries are essential for electric and hybrid-electric aircraft. Advancements in battery technology, particularly lithium-ion batteries, are driving progress in this area.
  • Electric Motors: Efficient and powerful electric motors are crucial for converting electrical energy into mechanical power for propulsion.
  • Power Electronics: Sophisticated power electronics systems manage the flow of electricity between batteries, motors, and other onboard systems, ensuring efficient and reliable operation.
  • Lightweight Materials: Utilizing lightweight materials, such as carbon fiber composites, is essential for reducing the overall weight of the aircraft and extending range.
  • Aerodynamic Design: Optimizing the aerodynamic design of electric and hybrid-electric aircraft can further reduce energy consumption and improve efficiency.

TRL : Variable (6-8)

Prominent Innovation themes

  • High-Energy-Density Batteries: Research and development focus on creating batteries with higher energy density, faster charging rates, and improved safety for aviation applications.
  • Superconducting Electric Motors: Exploring the use of superconducting materials to create more powerful and efficient electric motors for aircraft propulsion.
  • Distributed Electric Propulsion: Distributing multiple electric motors across the aircraft’s wings or fuselage to optimize aerodynamic performance and efficiency.
  • Hybrid System Optimization: Developing advanced control systems and algorithms to manage the interplay between electric motors and combustion engines in hybrid-electric aircraft, maximizing efficiency and minimizing emissions.
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology: Integrating hydrogen fuel cells into hybrid-electric aircraft to provide a zero-emission power source for extended range.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • All-Electric Aircraft Revolution
  • Hybrid-Electric Aircraft Advancements
  • Cutting-Edge Battery Technology
  • Superconducting Motor Innovation
  • Power Electronics Breakthroughs
  • Lightweight Material Solutions
  • Aerodynamic Design Optimization
  • High-Energy-Density Battery Development
  • Faster Charging Battery Solutions
  • Safe Aviation Battery Technology
  • Superconducting Motor Efficiency
  • Distributed Electric Propulsion Systems
  • Hybrid System Control Algorithms
  • Hydrogen Fuel Cell Integration

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Eviation:
    • Technology Focus: Eviation specializes in the development of all-electric aircraft for regional transportation. Their aircraft are designed to be efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective alternatives to traditional fossil fuel-powered planes.
    • Uniqueness: Eviation stands out for its commitment to all-electric propulsion systems, aiming to revolutionize regional air travel with zero-emission aircraft. Their focus on electric propulsion technology and aerodynamic efficiency sets them apart in the aerospace industry.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include regional airlines, cargo operators, and private aviation companies looking to transition to sustainable aviation solutions.
  • Heart Aerospace:
    • Technology Focus: Heart Aerospace is likely focused on developing hybrid-electric propulsion systems for regional aircraft. Their technology combines electric propulsion with conventional fuel-based systems to achieve greater efficiency and reduced environmental impact.
    • Uniqueness: Heart Aerospace’s hybrid-electric approach offers a balance between electric propulsion’s sustainability and the range and reliability of conventional aircraft. This hybrid solution could be particularly appealing for airlines operating in regions with limited infrastructure for all-electric flight.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments may include regional airlines, charter operators, and cargo carriers seeking to reduce emissions and operating costs while maintaining route flexibility.
  • Ampaire:
    • Technology Focus: Ampaire specializes in retrofitting existing aircraft with hybrid-electric propulsion systems. Their focus is on providing cost-effective solutions to reduce fuel consumption and emissions in the aviation industry.
    • Uniqueness: Ampaire’s approach of retrofitting existing aircraft with hybrid-electric technology allows for a more rapid adoption of electric propulsion in the aviation sector. By targeting existing aircraft models, they make sustainable aviation accessible to a broader range of operators.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include regional airlines, charter operators, and cargo carriers seeking to modernize their fleets and reduce operating costs while demonstrating a commitment to sustainability.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Technology Enhancements: MIT researchers are pioneering advancements in electric propulsion systems for aircraft, focusing on improving battery technology, electric motor efficiency, and power management systems. They are exploring innovative designs to maximize energy storage capacity while minimizing weight and volume, crucial for aviation applications.
    • Uniqueness of Research: MIT’s research stands out for its interdisciplinary approach, combining expertise in electrical engineering, aerospace engineering, and materials science. They are investigating novel materials for lightweight, high-performance batteries and developing sophisticated control algorithms for hybrid-electric propulsion systems.
    • End-use Applications: The innovations from MIT have profound implications for the aviation industry, enabling the development of low-carbon aircraft with reduced emissions and operating costs. Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft could revolutionize regional air travel, urban mobility, and cargo transportation, contributing to a more sustainable aviation sector.
  • Stanford University:
    • Technology Enhancements: Stanford’s research focuses on optimizing the design and operation of electric and hybrid-electric aircraft through advanced modeling and simulation techniques. They are developing computational tools to analyze aerodynamic performance, energy consumption, and mission feasibility of electric propulsion systems.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Stanford’s approach emphasizes the integration of renewable energy sources, such as solar and hydrogen, into the aircraft’s power generation and storage systems. They are exploring innovative concepts such as distributed propulsion and morphing wings to enhance the efficiency and versatility of electric aircraft.
    • End-use Applications: The research at Stanford has implications for both commercial and military aviation, including air taxis, regional airliners, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft could offer more sustainable alternatives to conventional jet engines, especially for short-haul flights and missions requiring low emissions and noise levels.
  • University of Cambridge:
    • Technology Enhancements: Researchers at the University of Cambridge are focusing on fundamental research in electric propulsion technologies, including novel motor designs, power electronics, and thermal management systems. They are investigating advanced materials for lightweight, high-temperature components essential for electric aircraft operation.
    • Uniqueness of Research: The University of Cambridge’s research stands out for its collaboration with industry partners and government agencies to address key technological challenges in electric aviation. They are working closely with aerospace manufacturers and regulatory bodies to ensure the safety, reliability, and certification of electric and hybrid-electric aircraft.
    • End-use Applications: The innovations from the University of Cambridge could lead to the widespread adoption of electric propulsion in various aviation sectors, including general aviation, air taxi services, and unmanned aerial systems (UAS). Electric and hybrid-electric aircraft offer the potential to reduce carbon emissions, noise pollution, and operating costs, making air travel more sustainable and accessible.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

The commercial implementation of electric and hybrid-electric aircraft is progressing rapidly, particularly for smaller, short-range aircraft. Several all-electric aircraft are undergoing flight testing and certification processes, and a growing number of hybrid-electric projects are demonstrating the viability of this technology. While larger, long-haul electric or hybrid-electric aircraft are still several years away from commercial deployment, the industry is making significant strides towards electrifying the skies.