Hydrogen-Powered Aircraft

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Hydrogen-powered aircraft are aircraft that utilize hydrogen as their primary fuel source for propulsion. There are two primary methods for using hydrogen in aircraft:

  • Direct Combustion: Hydrogen is burned directly in modified jet engines, similar to how conventional jet fuel is used.
  • Fuel Cells: Hydrogen is converted into electricity through fuel cells, which then power electric motors for propulsion.

Both methods offer the potential for zero-emission flight, as the only byproduct of hydrogen combustion is water vapor.

Impact on climate action

The adoption of hydrogen-powered aircraft in low-carbon aviation promises significant impact on climate action. By replacing traditional fossil fuels with hydrogen, these aircraft can drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, contributing to cleaner skies and advancing sustainable air travel, crucial for combating climate change.


  • Hydrogen Production: Producing green hydrogen from renewable sources, such as solar or wind power, is crucial for ensuring the sustainability of hydrogen-powered aircraft.
  • Hydrogen Storage: Developing safe and efficient methods for storing hydrogen onboard aircraft is a key challenge. Liquid hydrogen, compressed hydrogen gas, and metal hydrides are potential storage options.
  • Fuel Cell Technology: Advancements in fuel cell technology are essential for improving the efficiency and durability of hydrogen-powered fuel cell aircraft.
  • Aircraft Design Modification: Designing aircraft specifically optimized for hydrogen propulsion, considering factors such as fuel storage, weight distribution, and aerodynamic efficiency, is crucial.
  • Infrastructure Development: Building a robust hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure at airports is necessary to support the widespread adoption of hydrogen-powered aircraft.

TRL : 4-6

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage: Developing advanced cryogenic tanks to store liquid hydrogen onboard aircraft, maximizing energy density and minimizing weight.
  • Lightweight Hydrogen Storage Materials: Researching new materials, such as metal hydrides, that can store hydrogen safely and efficiently at lower pressures and temperatures.
  • High-Temperature Fuel Cells: Developing fuel cells that operate at higher temperatures, improving efficiency and reducing cooling requirements for aircraft applications.
  • Hybrid Hydrogen-Electric Propulsion: Combining hydrogen fuel cells with battery systems to create hybrid powertrains that offer extended range and operational flexibility.
  • Hydrogen Combustion Engine Optimization: Modifying and optimizing conventional jet engines to burn hydrogen efficiently and minimize NOx emissions.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Green Hydrogen Production Methods
  • Safe Hydrogen Storage Solutions
  • Advanced Cryogenic Tank Technology
  • Lightweight Hydrogen Storage Materials
  • High-Temperature Fuel Cell Development
  • Hybrid Hydrogen-Electric Powertrains
  • Hydrogen Combustion Engine Efficiency
  • Materials for Cryogenic Hydrogen Tanks
  • Hydrogen-Friendly Aircraft Components
  • Hydrogen Aircraft Certification Processes
  • Hydrogen-Powered UAV Technologies

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • ZeroAvia:
    • Technology Focus: ZeroAvia specializes in developing hydrogen-electric powertrain technology for aviation. Their goal is to replace conventional aviation fuels with hydrogen to create zero-emission aircraft.
    • Uniqueness: ZeroAvia is unique in its focus on hydrogen-electric propulsion systems for aircraft, aiming to significantly reduce aviation’s carbon footprint and dependence on fossil fuels.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include commercial airlines, regional air travel operators, and other stakeholders in the aviation industry looking to adopt more sustainable and environmentally friendly aviation solutions.
  • Universal Hydrogen:
    • Technology Focus: Universal Hydrogen focuses on developing a hydrogen logistics infrastructure and modular hydrogen powertrain solutions for aircraft. They aim to enable the conversion of existing aircraft to run on hydrogen fuel.
    • Uniqueness: Universal Hydrogen stands out for its approach of creating a standardized infrastructure for hydrogen distribution and retrofitting existing aircraft with hydrogen powertrains, thereby accelerating the adoption of hydrogen-powered flight.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include airlines, aircraft manufacturers, and regional air transportation companies seeking to transition to hydrogen-powered aircraft and reduce their carbon emissions.
  • HyPoint:
    • Technology Focus: HyPoint specializes in developing high-power, air-cooled hydrogen fuel cell systems for aviation applications. Their focus is on providing efficient and lightweight power solutions for electric aircraft.
    • Uniqueness: HyPoint is unique for its innovative air-cooled fuel cell technology, which offers high power density and rapid refueling capabilities, making it suitable for aviation applications where weight and performance are critical factors.
    • End-User Segments: Their target segments include electric aircraft manufacturers, drone companies, and urban air mobility operators looking for reliable and high-performance hydrogen fuel cell systems to power their aircraft.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Cranfield University:
    • Technology Enhancements: Cranfield University researchers are focusing on developing hydrogen fuel cell technology for powering aircraft propulsion systems. They are working on enhancing the efficiency and performance of hydrogen fuel cells, including advancements in fuel cell materials, system integration, and energy management.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Cranfield’s research emphasizes the integration of hydrogen propulsion systems into existing aircraft architectures, aiming for minimal retrofitting requirements and maximum compatibility with current aviation infrastructure. They are also investigating the safety and reliability aspects of hydrogen-powered aircraft operation.
    • End-use Applications: The research at Cranfield has implications for both commercial and military aviation sectors. Hydrogen-powered aircraft could significantly reduce carbon emissions and noise pollution, making air travel more sustainable and environmentally friendly.
  • Technische Universität München (TUM):
    • Technology Enhancements: TUM researchers are exploring novel approaches to hydrogen storage and distribution for aviation applications. They are investigating advanced hydrogen storage materials, such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes, as well as developing lightweight and high-capacity hydrogen storage tanks.
    • Uniqueness of Research: TUM’s research focuses on the entire hydrogen supply chain for aviation, from production to distribution and utilization. They are developing integrated systems for on-site hydrogen generation using renewable energy sources, enabling decentralized and sustainable hydrogen production for aircraft operations.
    • End-use Applications: The research at TUM has implications for both short-haul and long-haul aviation, including regional flights, air taxis, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Hydrogen-powered aircraft could provide an alternative to traditional fossil fuel-powered planes, especially for routes where electrification or biofuels are not feasible options.
  • University of Stuttgart:
    • Technology Enhancements: University of Stuttgart researchers are focusing on the aerodynamic design and performance optimization of hydrogen-powered aircraft. They are using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and wind tunnel experiments to study the airflow around hydrogen fuel cells, aircraft wings, and propulsion systems.
    • Uniqueness of Research: Stuttgart’s research integrates hydrogen propulsion systems with innovative aircraft configurations, such as blended-wing body (BWB) and distributed propulsion concepts. They are exploring how these unconventional aircraft designs can maximize energy efficiency and reduce drag, leading to extended range and improved fuel economy.
    • End-use Applications: The research at Stuttgart has implications for various aviation applications, including passenger transportation, cargo delivery, and aerial surveillance. Hydrogen-powered aircraft with optimized aerodynamics and propulsion systems could offer enhanced performance and environmental sustainability compared to conventional aircraft designs.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

The commercial implementation of hydrogen-powered aircraft is still in its early stages. Several startups and established aerospace companies are working to develop and test prototypes, but no large-scale commercial aircraft powered by hydrogen are currently in operation. Industry experts predict that smaller, short-range hydrogen-powered aircraft could enter the market within the next few years, while larger, long-haul hydrogen aircraft are likely to be commercially available in the 2030s or 2040s.