Advanced Biofuel Feedstocks

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Research is ongoing to develop new feedstocks for biofuel production that offer higher yields and lower environmental impact compared to traditional feedstocks like corn and sugarcane. These advanced feedstocks include:

  • Algae: Algae can produce high yields of oil that can be converted into biofuels. They can be grown in saltwater ponds or other aquatic environments, reducing the need for arable land.
  • Switchgrass: This perennial grass can grow on marginal lands and requires minimal inputs, making it a sustainable feedstock option.
  • Waste Biomass: Utilizing waste biomass, such as agricultural residues and municipal solid waste, for biofuel production can address waste management challenges while creating renewable energy.

Impact on climate action

Advanced Biofuel Feedstocks within Biofuels enhance climate action by diversifying feedstock sources, reducing competition with food crops, and improving land-use efficiency. By promoting sustainable biomass production, these innovations mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and contribute to a more sustainable energy transition.


  • Biomass: Biomass refers to organic matter, such as plants, algae, and waste organic materials. Advanced biofuel feedstocks focus on utilizing non-food biomass sources that are sustainable and do not compete with food production.
  • Photosynthesis: Algae and other photosynthetic organisms can convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into organic molecules, including lipids (oils) that can be used to produce biofuels.
  • Thermochemical Conversion: Processes like pyrolysis and gasification can convert biomass into biofuels and other valuable products. These processes involve heating biomass in the absence of oxygen to break down its complex molecules into simpler compounds that can be used as fuels.

TRL : 4-6 (depending on the specific feedstock)

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Genetically Modified Algae: Startups like Algenol and Sapphire Energy are developing genetically modified algae strains that produce higher yields of oil, making algae-based biofuels more economically viable.
  • Advanced Cultivation Systems: Innovations in cultivation systems, such as closed photobioreactors, can optimize algae growth and increase oil production.
  • Efficient Biomass Conversion Technologies: Startups like Cool Planet Energy Systems are developing more efficient and cost-effective thermochemical conversion processes to produce biofuels from non-food biomass.
  • Waste Biomass Utilization: Research is ongoing to develop technologies that can efficiently convert various waste biomass sources, such as agricultural residues and municipal solid waste, into biofuels.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Algae-Based Biofuel Solutions
  • Waste Biomass Utilization Innovations
  • Genetic Engineering for Higher Yields
  • Next-Gen Feedstock Varieties
  • Closed Photobioreactors for Algae Growth
  • Optimizing Biomass Conversion Processes
  • Biofuel Production from Marginal Lands
  • Waste Biomass Conversion Techniques

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Algenol:
    • Technology Enhancement: Algenol specializes in algae-based biofuel production. They use proprietary algae strains to convert carbon dioxide into biofuels, such as ethanol and jet fuel, through photosynthesis.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Algenol’s technology enables the production of renewable biofuels using algae, which can be cultivated in non-arable land and non-potable water, reducing competition with food crops and freshwater resources.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Algenol serves industries seeking sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels, including transportation, aviation, and marine sectors. Their biofuels offer lower carbon emissions and can be used as drop-in replacements for conventional fuels.
  • Sapphire Energy:
    • Technology Enhancement: Sapphire Energy focuses on producing renewable crude oil from algae through a process known as “green crude” production. They use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and seawater to grow algae and convert it into biofuels.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Sapphire Energy’s approach allows for the large-scale cultivation of algae in open ponds or closed photobioreactors, enabling sustainable biofuel production without competing for arable land or freshwater resources.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Sapphire Energy targets industries seeking renewable fuels for transportation, aviation, and diesel-powered applications. Their biofuels offer a sustainable alternative to petroleum-derived fuels with lower carbon emissions.
  • Cool Planet Energy Systems:
    • Technology Enhancement: Cool Planet Energy Systems develops advanced biofuels and biochar from non-food biomass feedstocks, such as agricultural residues and forestry waste, through a thermochemical conversion process.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Cool Planet’s technology produces biofuels and biochar with high energy density and low carbon intensity, suitable for use in transportation, power generation, and soil enhancement applications.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Cool Planet Energy Systems serves industries seeking sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and soil amendments. Their biofuels are used in gasoline blends, diesel engines, and aviation fuels, while their biochar improves soil health and carbon sequestration.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • University of California, Berkeley:
    • Research Focus: UC Berkeley is engaged in cutting-edge research on advanced biofuel feedstocks, focusing on developing novel plant species and genetic modifications to enhance biofuel production efficiency and sustainability.
    • Uniqueness: Their research often involves genetic engineering and synthetic biology techniques to optimize biomass composition, increase biomass yield, and improve resistance to environmental stresses.
    • End-use Applications: UC Berkeley’s work has applications in bioenergy production, renewable fuels, and sustainable agriculture. For example, they’re researching bioengineered crops with enhanced lignocellulosic content for bioethanol production and algae strains optimized for biodiesel production.
  • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign:
    • Research Focus: The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is a leader in research on advanced biofuel feedstocks, exploring diverse plant species and agronomic practices to maximize biofuel yield while minimizing environmental impact.
    • Uniqueness: Their research often involves field trials and modeling studies to evaluate the performance of bioenergy crops under different growing conditions and management practices.
    • End-use Applications: Their work finds applications in bioenergy production, carbon sequestration, and rural development. For instance, they’re investigating perennial grasses like switchgrass and miscanthus as sustainable feedstocks for cellulosic biofuels and bioproducts.
  • Wageningen University & Research:
    • Research Focus: Wageningen University & Research is at the forefront of research on advanced biofuel feedstocks, exploring the potential of novel crops, microbial systems, and biotechnological approaches to enhance biofuel production.
    • Uniqueness: Their research often involves interdisciplinary collaborations, combining expertise in plant sciences, microbiology, and bioprocess engineering to develop integrated solutions for sustainable bioenergy production.
    • End-use Applications: Their work has applications in bioenergy, biorefining, and circular economy initiatives. For example, they’re researching the use of perennial energy crops like willow and poplar for bioenergy production and exploring microbial platforms for producing biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Developed through genetic engineering, advanced biofuel feedstocks optimize plant traits for efficient biofuel production. Partnerships with research institutions drive innovation. Field trials assess performance, leading to large-scale cultivation. Processing converts biomass into biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Marketed as eco-friendly alternatives, they meet regulatory standards and foster sustainable energy solutions.