Biofuel Production from Municipal Solid Waste

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

This technology involves converting municipal solid waste (MSW), such as food scraps and yard waste, into biofuels. This approach can address waste management challenges while producing renewable energy.

Impact on climate action

Biofuel Production from Municipal Solid Waste within Biofuels enhances climate action by converting organic waste into renewable energy sources. By diverting waste from landfills, this innovation reduces methane emissions and displaces fossil fuels, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and contributing to a more sustainable and circular economy.


  • Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): MSW includes various waste materials generated by households and businesses, such as food scraps, yard waste, paper, and plastics.
  • Thermochemical Conversion: Processes like gasification and pyrolysis can convert MSW into biofuels. These processes involve heating the waste in the absence of oxygen to break down its complex molecules into simpler compounds that can be used as fuels.
  • Gasification: Gasification converts biomass into a synthesis gas (syngas), which is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Syngas can then be used to produce various fuels and chemicals.
  • Pyrolysis: Pyrolysis converts biomass into a liquid bio-oil, which can be further processed into biofuels.

TRL : 6-7

Prominent Innovation themes

  • Advanced Gasification Technologies: Innovations in gasification technologies are improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of converting MSW into biofuels. This includes the development of new gasifier designs and catalysts.
  • Feedstock Sorting and Preprocessing: Efficiently sorting and preprocessing MSW to remove contaminants and prepare the feedstock for conversion is crucial for improving biofuel yields and reducing costs.
  • Integrated Waste-to-Biofuel Systems: Companies are developing integrated systems that combine MSW sorting and preprocessing with conversion technologies to produce biofuels in a more efficient and cost-effective manner.
  • Policy and Regulatory Support: Government policies and regulations, such as renewable fuel standards and waste management regulations, can play a significant role in promoting the development and adoption of MSW-to-biofuel technologies.

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Fulcrum BioEnergy:
    • Technology Enhancement: Fulcrum BioEnergy employs a proprietary thermochemical process called gasification to convert municipal solid waste into low-carbon transportation fuels, such as renewable diesel and jet fuel.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Fulcrum’s technology allows for the conversion of non-recyclable municipal solid waste into advanced biofuels, reducing landfill waste and greenhouse gas emissions. Their process also produces renewable energy and valuable by-products.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Fulcrum BioEnergy serves industries seeking sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels, including aviation, transportation, and logistics sectors. Their renewable fuels offer a low-carbon solution for reducing emissions from diesel and jet engines.
  • Enerkem:
    • Technology Enhancement: Enerkem utilizes a proprietary thermochemical process to convert municipal solid waste into syngas, which is then converted into biofuels and chemicals using catalytic processes.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Enerkem’s technology enables the production of advanced biofuels and chemicals from non-recyclable waste materials, contributing to waste diversion and resource recovery. Their process also helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reliance on fossil fuels.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Enerkem serves industries seeking renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, including transportation, chemicals, and manufacturing sectors. Their biofuels and chemicals offer a sustainable solution for reducing carbon emissions and dependence on finite resources.
  • Waste Management:
    • Technology Enhancement: Waste Management is a leading waste management and environmental services company that operates landfill gas-to-energy projects, producing renewable natural gas (RNG) from landfill methane emissions.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Waste Management’s landfill gas-to-energy projects harness methane emissions from landfills to generate renewable natural gas, which can be used as a transportation fuel or injected into the natural gas grid.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Waste Management serves industries seeking renewable energy solutions, including transportation, utilities, and industrial sectors. Their RNG projects help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Columbia University:
    • Research Focus: Columbia University is actively involved in pioneering research on biofuel production from municipal solid waste (MSW), focusing on developing sustainable and efficient conversion technologies to transform organic waste into biofuels.
    • Uniqueness: Their research often involves thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, and hydrothermal liquefaction to convert MSW into bio-oil, syngas, or biochar, which can be further processed into liquid transportation fuels or biogas.
    • End-use Applications: Columbia’s work has applications in waste management, renewable energy, and circular economy initiatives. For example, they’re researching integrated MSW-to-biofuel systems for urban areas, utilizing local waste streams to produce renewable fuels and reduce landfill waste and greenhouse gas emissions.
  • University of California, Berkeley:
    • Research Focus: UC Berkeley conducts cutting-edge research on biofuel production from municipal solid waste, exploring innovative biochemical and biotechnological approaches to convert organic waste into biofuels and value-added products.
    • Uniqueness: Their research often involves microbial fermentation processes, enzymatic hydrolysis, and metabolic engineering techniques to ferment sugars and lignocellulosic biomass derived from MSW into bioethanol, biobutanol, or biochemicals.
    • End-use Applications: UC Berkeley’s work finds applications in renewable fuels, bioproducts, and waste-to-energy systems. For instance, they’re researching microbial consortia for fermenting MSW-derived sugars into biofuels and biochemicals, as well as biorefinery concepts for co-producing biofuels and bioplastics from MSW feedstocks.
  • University of Queensland:
    • Research Focus: The University of Queensland is a leader in research on biofuel production from municipal solid waste, exploring holistic approaches to valorize organic waste streams and generate renewable fuels and energy products.
    • Uniqueness: Their research often involves integrated biorefinery concepts, combining thermochemical and biochemical conversion pathways to maximize resource recovery and energy efficiency from MSW.
    • End-use Applications: Their work has applications in waste management, bioenergy production, and rural development. For example, they’re researching hybrid biorefinery systems for converting MSW into biofuels, biochar, and biogas, as well as decentralized MSW-to-energy solutions for off-grid communities.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Several commercial-scale MSW-to-biofuel plants are in operation or under development around the world.