Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) integrates solar panels into building materials, such as roof tiles, windows, and facades. This allows buildings to generate electricity from their own surfaces, reducing reliance on the grid and contributing to a more sustainable built environment.

Impact on climate action

Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) within Distributed Solar PV enhance climate action by seamlessly integrating solar panels into building structures. By maximizing solar energy generation potential in urban areas, BIPV reduces reliance on fossil fuels, mitigates carbon emissions, and accelerates the transition to renewable energy, combating climate change.


  • Photovoltaic (PV) Cells: BIPV systems use PV cells, similar to those found in traditional solar panels, to convert sunlight into electricity.
  • Building Materials Integration: PV cells are integrated into building materials, such as glass, concrete, and metal, to create multifunctional building components that generate electricity.
  • Architectural Design: BIPV systems need to be aesthetically pleasing and integrated into the architectural design of the building.
  • Building Energy Management Systems: BIPV systems can be integrated with building energy management systems to optimize energy usage and maximize the benefits of solar power.

TRL : 6-8 (depending on the specific BIPV technology)

Prominent Innovation themes

  • High-Efficiency BIPV Materials: Researchers and startups are developing new BIPV materials with higher efficiencies and improved aesthetics, making them more attractive for building applications.
  • Transparent and Semi-Transparent Solar Cells: Transparent and semi-transparent solar cells are being developed to create BIPV windows and facades that can generate electricity while still allowing light to pass through.
  • Flexible and Lightweight BIPV Modules: Flexible and lightweight BIPV modules are being developed to make it easier to integrate solar panels into complex building designs.
  • Building-Integrated Energy Storage: Integrating energy storage systems with BIPV can create self-sufficient buildings that can generate and store their own renewable energy.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Solar Integration in Urban Landscapes
  • Architectural Aesthetics and BIPV Design
  • Sustainability in Building Construction
  • Seamless Integration of Solar Technology
  • Next-Generation BIPV Materials
  • Energy Optimization through Building-Integrated Systems
  • Cutting-Edge Transparent Solar Solutions
  • Innovative Applications in Building Facades
  • Lightweight and Flexible BIPV Modules
  • Self-Sufficient Buildings with Integrated Energy Storage
  • Tesla’s Disruptive Solar Roof Technology
  • Scaling Up BIPV for Commercial Use

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • Tesla:
    • Technology Enhancement: Tesla offers building-integrated photovoltaic solutions through its solar roof tiles. These tiles are designed to resemble traditional roofing materials while incorporating solar cells to generate electricity from sunlight. Tesla’s solar roof tiles seamlessly integrate with the architecture of residential and commercial buildings, providing both aesthetic appeal and renewable energy generation.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Tesla stands out for its innovative approach to BIPV, combining solar energy generation with roofing materials in a single product. Their solar roof tiles offer durability, weather resistance, and energy efficiency, transforming buildings into self-sustaining power generators while enhancing curb appeal and property value.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Tesla serves homeowners, home builders, and commercial property owners seeking sustainable and aesthetically pleasing roofing solutions. Their solar roof tiles are deployed in new construction projects and roof replacement projects, offering long-term energy savings, environmental benefits, and resilience against power outages.
  • SunStyle:
    • Technology Enhancement: SunStyle specializes in building-integrated photovoltaic products, including solar glass and solar panels integrated into architectural elements such as windows, facades, and skylights. Their BIPV solutions blend seamlessly with building structures, providing energy generation while enhancing natural lighting and aesthetics.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: SunStyle stands out for its focus on custom BIPV solutions tailored to the specific design requirements of buildings. Their products offer flexibility in terms of size, shape, and transparency, allowing architects and developers to incorporate solar energy generation without compromising design aesthetics.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: SunStyle serves architects, developers, and building owners looking to integrate renewable energy into their projects while maintaining architectural integrity and design aesthetics. Their BIPV solutions are deployed in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings seeking to achieve sustainability goals and reduce reliance on grid electricity.
  • Viridian Solar:
    • Technology Enhancement: Viridian Solar specializes in roof-integrated solar panels designed for seamless integration into pitched roofs. Their Clearline fusion range of BIPV modules replaces conventional roof tiles, providing a sleek and integrated solution for solar energy generation. These modules are installed directly onto the roof structure, eliminating the need for traditional mounting systems.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Viridian Solar stands out for its focus on roof-integrated solar panels that blend seamlessly with various roof types and architectural styles. Their BIPV modules offer ease of installation, aesthetic appeal, and high performance, making solar energy accessible to homeowners and builders without compromising on design.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Viridian Solar serves residential and small commercial markets seeking attractive and efficient solar solutions for pitched roofs. Their BIPV modules are popular among homeowners, self-builders, and developers looking to incorporate renewable energy into new construction or roof replacement projects.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Research Focus: MIT is a pioneer in research on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), focusing on developing advanced materials, design strategies, and manufacturing techniques to seamlessly integrate solar photovoltaic technology into building envelopes and architectural elements.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses the development of transparent solar cells, solar-active building materials, and flexible solar modules that can be integrated into windows, facades, roofs, and other structural components of buildings. They also explore innovative approaches for optimizing energy generation, daylighting, and thermal performance while maintaining aesthetic appeal and architectural functionality.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in commercial buildings, residential homes, and urban infrastructure. By transforming buildings into energy-generating assets, MIT’s research enables net-zero energy construction, reduces reliance on grid electricity, and enhances the sustainability and resilience of the built environment.
  • Stanford University:
    • Research Focus: Stanford University conducts cutting-edge research on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), leveraging its expertise in materials science, nanotechnology, and architectural engineering to develop next-generation solar building solutions with enhanced performance, durability, and design flexibility.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves the development of thin-film solar coatings, self-cleaning surfaces, and multifunctional building skins that combine solar energy harvesting with other functionalities such as insulation, shading, and noise reduction. They also explore advanced fabrication methods, including inkjet printing, roll-to-roll processing, and 3D printing, to enable cost-effective and scalable production of BIPV systems.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work find applications in green building projects, smart cities, and sustainable urban development. By integrating solar technology seamlessly into the built environment, Stanford’s research promotes energy efficiency, reduces carbon emissions, and enhances occupant comfort and well-being.
  • ETH Zurich:
    • Research Focus: ETH Zurich is at the forefront of research on Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), leveraging its expertise in architectural design, renewable energy systems, and urban planning to develop innovative solutions for integrating solar photovoltaics into buildings and urban infrastructure.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses the development of active and passive BIPV systems, including solar roof tiles, facade-integrated solar modules, and solar-active building envelopes. They also investigate the integration of BIPV with energy storage, smart grid technologies, and building automation systems to optimize energy management and grid interaction.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in sustainable building design, urban regeneration, and climate-responsive architecture. By embedding solar technology into the fabric of cities, ETH Zurich’s research contributes to reducing carbon footprints, enhancing urban resilience, and promoting renewable energy adoption in the built environment.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

BIPV systems are being implemented in commercial and residential buildings around the world. For example, the Tesla Solar Roof has been installed on thousands of homes in the United States, while SunStyle’s BIPV products have been used in various commercial and institutional buildings.