Off-Grid Solar Solutions

Detailed overview of innovation with sample startups and prominent university research

What it is

Off-grid solar solutions provide electricity to homes and businesses that are not connected to the main electricity grid. These systems typically consist of solar panels, batteries for energy storage, and other components like inverters and charge controllers.

Impact on climate action

Off-Grid Solar Solutions in Distributed Solar PV revolutionize climate action by providing clean, reliable energy access to remote areas. By reducing reliance on fossil fuels and diesel generators, these innovations mitigate carbon emissions, improve energy access, and promote sustainable development, contributing to a more resilient and low-carbon future.


  • Solar PV Panels: Solar panels convert sunlight into electricity, providing the primary energy source for the off-grid system.
  • Energy Storage Systems (ESS): ESS, such as batteries, store excess solar energy for later use, ensuring a reliable and consistent power supply even when the sun isn’t shining.
  • Inverters: Inverters convert the DC electricity generated by solar panels into AC electricity, which is used by most appliances and devices.
  • Charge Controllers: Charge controllers regulate the charging and discharging of batteries to ensure their optimal performance and lifespan.
  • System Design and Optimization: Off-grid solar systems need to be carefully designed and optimized to meet the specific energy needs of the user and the environmental conditions of the location.

TRL : 7-8

Prominent Innovation themes

  • High-Efficiency Solar Panels and Batteries: Innovations in solar panel and battery technology are improving the efficiency, affordability, and lifespan of off-grid solar systems.
  • Smart Energy Management Systems: Smart EMS can optimize energy usage and battery charging/discharging cycles, improving system efficiency and reliability.
  • Integrated Solar-Plus-Storage Solutions: Companies are developing integrated solar-plus-storage solutions specifically designed for off-grid applications, reducing costs and simplifying installation.
  • Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) Solar: PAYG solar models allow customers to pay for solar energy in small increments, making off-grid solar solutions more accessible and affordable for low-income communities.
  • Mobile-Enabled Monitoring and Control: Mobile apps and platforms are being developed to allow users to monitor and control their off-grid solar systems remotely.

Other Innovation Subthemes

  • Affordable Solar Solutions for Low-Income Communities
  • Optimizing Battery Storage for Off-Grid Solar Systems
  • Remote Monitoring and Management of Off-Grid Solar Solutions
  • Integration of Off-Grid Solar with Microgrids
  • Sustainable Business Models for Off-Grid Solar Deployment
  • Innovations in Smart Energy Management for Off-Grid Systems
  • Mobile Payment Systems for Off-Grid Solar Energy
  • Improving Durability and Longevity of Off-Grid Solar Products
  • Increasing Efficiency of Off-Grid Solar Systems
  • Innovations in Inverter Technology for Off-Grid Solar Systems

Sample Global Startups and Companies

  • M-KOPA Solar:
    • Technology Enhancement: M-KOPA Solar offers off-grid solar home systems designed to provide electricity to households in areas without access to the traditional power grid. Their systems typically include solar panels, a battery storage unit, LED lights, mobile phone charging capabilities, and optional appliances such as radios and TVs. The systems are designed to be affordable, easy to install, and capable of meeting the basic energy needs of off-grid households.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: M-KOPA Solar stands out for its pay-as-you-go (PAYG) business model, which allows customers to access solar energy solutions through affordable installment payments via mobile money. This innovative financing approach makes solar power accessible to low-income households, empowering them with clean and reliable energy while also promoting financial inclusion.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: M-KOPA Solar primarily targets off-grid households in rural and peri-urban areas of developing countries, particularly in Africa. Their off-grid solar solutions cater to households that lack access to reliable electricity, providing them with a sustainable alternative to kerosene lamps and other fossil fuel-based lighting sources.
  • Sun King:
    • Technology Enhancement: Sun King, a brand of Greenlight Planet, offers a range of off-grid solar products, including solar lanterns, home lighting systems, and solar-powered appliances. Their products are designed to provide affordable and reliable lighting and phone charging solutions to off-grid households. Sun King’s solar lanterns and home systems incorporate high-efficiency LED lights, lithium-ion batteries, and solar panels for energy generation and storage.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Sun King stands out for its extensive distribution network and market reach in off-grid communities across Africa, Asia, and other regions. Their products are sold through a network of local distributors, agents, and retailers, enabling widespread access to clean energy solutions in rural and remote areas.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Sun King targets off-grid households, small businesses, and communities in developing countries that lack access to reliable electricity. Their solar products are particularly popular among low-income families, students, farmers, and small shop owners who rely on affordable and portable lighting and charging solutions.
  • Off Grid Electric (now Zola Electric):
    • Technology Enhancement: Off Grid Electric, rebranded as Zola Electric, offers off-grid solar home systems and energy services for households and small businesses in Africa. Their solutions include solar panels, battery storage, energy-efficient appliances, and mobile payment-enabled PAYG financing options. Zola Electric’s systems are designed to provide clean and reliable electricity for lighting, phone charging, entertainment, and productive uses such as running small businesses and appliances.
    • Uniqueness of the Startup: Zola Electric stands out for its focus on delivering energy access as a service, rather than just selling solar products. Their innovative business model combines hardware, software, financing, and customer support to provide holistic energy solutions tailored to the needs of off-grid customers. This approach helps overcome affordability barriers and ensures long-term sustainability of energy access initiatives.
    • End-User Segments Addressing: Zola Electric serves off-grid households, small businesses, and community institutions in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa. Their solar solutions cater to a diverse range of customers, including farmers, healthcare clinics, schools, and micro-entrepreneurs, empowering them with clean, affordable, and reliable energy services.

Sample Research At Top-Tier Universities

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT):
    • Research Focus: MIT is actively involved in research on Off-Grid Solar Solutions, focusing on developing scalable and sustainable energy access solutions for remote and underserved communities.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses the development of off-grid solar PV systems with integrated energy storage, demand-side management, and grid-forming capabilities to provide reliable and affordable electricity services in off-grid areas. They also explore innovative business models, financing mechanisms, and policy frameworks to promote the adoption and sustainability of off-grid solar solutions.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work find applications in rural electrification, off-grid microgrids, and disaster resilience. By deploying off-grid solar solutions, MIT’s research helps improve energy access, enhance livelihoods, and foster economic development in remote regions, contributing to the achievement of sustainable development goals.
  • Stanford University:
    • Research Focus: Stanford University conducts innovative research on Off-Grid Solar Solutions, leveraging its expertise in engineering, economics, and social sciences to develop holistic approaches for addressing energy poverty and promoting energy access in off-grid areas.
    • Uniqueness: Their research involves designing off-grid solar PV systems tailored to local energy demand patterns, environmental conditions, and community needs. They also explore the integration of decentralized energy resources, energy-efficient appliances, and productive end-uses to maximize the socioeconomic impact of off-grid electrification initiatives.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work have applications in rural electrification, healthcare facilities, and agricultural productivity. By deploying off-grid solar solutions, Stanford’s research supports poverty alleviation, improves access to essential services, and empowers communities to build resilience against climate change and energy shocks.
  • University of California, Berkeley:
    • Research Focus: UC Berkeley is engaged in research on Off-Grid Solar Solutions, leveraging its expertise in renewable energy technologies, policy analysis, and social entrepreneurship to develop innovative solutions for expanding energy access and promoting sustainable development in off-grid areas.
    • Uniqueness: Their research encompasses the design, optimization, and deployment of off-grid solar mini-grids, solar home systems, and solar-powered appliances to meet the energy needs of underserved populations. They also explore community-based approaches, capacity-building initiatives, and gender-inclusive strategies to ensure the inclusivity and sustainability of off-grid electrification projects.
    • End-use Applications: The outcomes of their work find applications in off-grid communities, refugee camps, and humanitarian settings. By implementing off-grid solar solutions, UC Berkeley’s research facilitates social empowerment, enhances educational opportunities, and improves health outcomes, contributing to poverty reduction and sustainable development goals.

commercial_img Commercial Implementation

Off-grid solar solutions are being implemented in various regions around the world, particularly in developing countries with large off-grid populations. For example, M-KOPA Solar has provided solar home systems to over 1 million households in Africa.